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CPA Annual Report: 1993 – 1994

Annual Report
July 1, 1993 – June 30, 1994


It is with great pleasure that I welcome M. Stuart Lynn to the presidency of the Commission on Preservation and Access. His appointment reflects the Commission’s continuing responsiveness to the broad challenge of preserving the historical record, regardless of medium or format. As noted in these pages during the last seven years, our purpose has been one of continual discovery and re-charting our course as our horizons broadened.

Nineteen eighty-eight was a watershed year in the preservation movement marked by the passage of increased federal funding for the brittle books program and expanded supporting activities. We had no time to savor our achievement–by 1989, we recognized that our activities must encompass not only a massive retrospective effort focused on the printed document but the design of effective strategies for access to electronically generated, stored and disseminated knowledge far into the future.

By 1993, it was unmistakably evident that digital technology is forcing a radical change in our traditional approaches. The great task of librarians is to preserve the past, serve the present, and create the future. Until electronic technologies arrived, we created the future in the image of the past. That is no longer possible–preservation policies and practices must now focus, not on the permanency of the medium, but on the management of permanency in the digital environment. Now we not only have to contend with the medium, but also the hardware and software to read the knowledge it contains.

Our challenge has moved from a focus on brittle books to the need to insure coordinated retrospective and prospective access to the intellectual and cultural heritage, be it recorded on paper, film, electronic or digital media. We have progressed into a full-blown technological revolution and find ourselves struggling to redefine the future of our professional obligations and maintain traditional services at one and the same time.

In a recent report, the Committee on Applications and Technology of the National Information Infrastructure Task Force lists the major areas of concern facing us today to be the following: Equitable access, intellectual property, demonstration and pilot projects, technical standards, training and support, research and development, and privacy and security. The report also notes that the major problems are money for the infrastructure, conversion of printed sources to digital format, and the development of human resources to design and manage the process.

The issues are identical to those faced by the preservation movement during the last seven years, a movement which prefigured the challenge to build the digital library services of the future. Our experiences can provide valuable insights as we strive, in concert with our colleagues in higher education, publishing, industry and government, to create agile information services integrating the knowledge of the past, present and future in support of a democratic society.

The technology continues to change at an increasingly rapid pace, and it appears that these changes will indubitably be ruled by the demands of commercial markets, largely multimedia entertainment, not the requirements of the academic community. We must be vigilant in supporting the public right to know, a principle which has guided our commitment to the spread of knowledge as an essential public good in a democratic society.

In the digital world, preservation becomes access and access becomes preservation. Since we mounted the full-scale onslaught against crumbling books in 1988, we have come full circle from preservation to access to preservation, if we are going to provide continuing access to the knowledge of the past for the present and the future. The fundamental impulse of the human spirit for expression in thought, song and image will always overwhelm our capacity to collect and preserve. As librarians, we have always had to select what we would collect and make accessible in our library collections; as preservationists, we have had to select from the masses of crumbling books and fading photographic collections what we would make accessible for the future; and as managers of huge volumes of digital information, our primary role will be to develop a conceptual framework for digital collections that is intellectually sound and financially affordable for all citizens.

I retire from the Commission on Preservation and Access with the personal satisfaction of establishing a focused momentum for continuing action and with the sure knowledge that our achievements are only the beginning of a long, unpredictable and critical transformation of information services in support of the intellectual and cultural vitality of our society. The accomplishments are the direct result of the diverse contributions of a multitude of talented and energetic people who forged an unprecedented coalition to solve unprecedented problems–the Commission’s staff and consultants, the board of directors, the institutional sponsors, the foundations, the preservation community, and the many concerned individuals from a wide range of pursuits who gave freely of their wisdom and energy to our mutual cause. It is with deep appreciation and grateful acknowledgment of that confidence and support that I leave the Commission on Preservation and Access.

Patricia Battin

This annual report reflects another year of sound achievement for retiring president Patricia Battin and for the board of directors–a year that builds on the past years of accomplishments. Pat and the board have set a challenging agenda described in the Working Paper on the Future. This agenda defines the Commission’s role as a catalyst for programs and projects that help ensure continued access to the historical record. I look forward to carrying that agenda forward, building on the outstanding job that Pat has done in establishing the Commission and its hallmark of quality.

M. Stuart Lynn

Organization, Support and Initiatives

The Commission on Preservation and Access was established in 1986 by the Council on Library Resources, Inc., following a unanimous request from the members of the Association of Research Libraries to coordinate a comprehensive national preservation effort. The Commission functions on behalf of colleges and universities; research, academic and governmental libraries; local, state and federal archives; scholars; commercial and academic publishers; professional associations and other organizations concerned with preserving and providing access to our recorded intellectual heritage.

The Commission operates as a nonprofit corporation exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. It is funded by institutional sponsors and foundation grants. As stated in the bylaws, the Commission’s primary objective is to foster, develop and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide continuing access to scholarly information.

The Commission addresses issues on national and international levels and selects initiatives that are of maximum benefit in both the short and long term. Rather than operate programs, the Commission serves as a catalytic agent, broker and convener of interested parties and as an advocate for collaborative and visionary solutions. Rather than provide services, the Commission contracts for research and demonstration projects, sponsors meetings and workshops, and convenes working groups and committees.

An elected board of directors meets three times each year, with an annual meeting in the fall. Members serve three-year terms with a three-term maximum. In 1993-94, Paul LeClerc was elected and Barbara Goldsmith and David Penniman resigned. The founding president, Patricia Battin, retired June 30, 1994, at which time she was honored by the board and constituents for her extraordinary vision and substantial accomplishments during seven years of leadership. She was succeeded on July 1, 1994, by M. Stuart Lynn. In addition to the president, the staff includes two program officers, a financial officer, an executive assistant and a communications assistant. The Commission maintains its flexibility to respond to changing needs and issues by using consultants for many initiatives.

A broad base of sponsors provides the basic operating budget for management and planning capabilities. This core support enables the Commission to raise substantial funding for the programs that directly benefit institutions. The sponsorship base has increased to 68 from the original 17 in 1986.

Program funds came from:
Carnegie Corporation of New York
The Charles E. Culpeper Foundation
The Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation
The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
The H.W. Wilson Foundation


The Commission’s executive capacity maintains the visibility of urgent preservation and access issues, assesses new and continuing needs, and catalyzes productive and focused responses. The initiatives listed below illustrate the Commission’s executive capacity to analyze events, seize the initiative, and leverage results into meaningful change on national and global scales.

  • The technology initiative catalyzes and supports the transition to the digital library by extending explorations into the use of digital technology for the preservation of and access to research resources.
  • The communications initiative advocates the preservation and access agenda beyond the immediate library community and promotes durable support for our work and goals.
  • The international initiative encourages the creation of compatible bibliographic database capacities around the globe and stimulates support of preservation and access activities in individual countries and in multinational coalitions.
  • The scholarly involvement initiative seeks comprehensive understanding of both the selection of resources for preservation and the changing information requirements of scholars in an increasingly digital environment.
  • The science research initiative addresses critical technical issues faced by colleges, universities and archives responsible for providing continuing access to both large and small culturally important collections.
  • The education initiative explores options for productive curriculum development for 21st-century librarians who are charged with providing access to information recorded on a wide range of media as far into the future as possible.

For more information on the history and goals of the Commission, see the Working Paper on the Future (February 1994),Brittle Books, Reports of the Committee on Preservation and Access and previous Commission annual reports. All are available from the Commission.

Special Report
Preservation Science Research

A necessary component of a comprehensive preservation program is a science research agenda to address critical technical issues faced by the colleges, universities and archives that are responsible for both large and small culturally important collections. The Commission’s preservation science research initiative, supported by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, began at the request of several national library committees interested in developing a cooperative research agenda.

At an October 1989 meeting called by the Commission, preservation administrators’ concerns centered on two areas: The inability of the preservation community to apply basic scientific findings to their institutions’ problems with any degree of confidence, and the difficulty experienced in agreeing on a set of realistic priorities. The initiative thus began with two goals: To develop a dialogue between preservation administrators and scientists regarding the use of scientific information in libraries and archives, and to produce a workable and focused research agenda.

To build such an agenda, librarians, archivists, and scientists needed a shared understanding of how research can be designed, interpreted and used for decision making. With this common ground, they could work together to establish top-priority scientific projects that address the needs of preservation programs. As discussions progressed, it became clear that a great deal of relevant research has been and is being conducted, and that the dissemination of findings is uncoordinated and inadequate. The initative first examined past and present scientific research that could be useful to preservation administrators and then engaged scientists to analyze and interpret the applicability of this research to preservation needs. To extend this process, the Commission appointed a panel of preservation professionals to comment on selected scientific reports from the perspective of their institutions’ needs.

Two intensive workshops and a one-day planning meet held in 1992 and 1993 provided focused opportunities for mutual education and consensus building by four materials and conservation scientists and 16 U.S. and Canadian preservation program administrators. Evolving from these events were several operating principles that continue to shape the agenda:

  • Participation of scientists as advisors, co-developers, and supporters of research projects is needed to build a collaborative science agenda. However, it is the administrator’s responsibility to define needs, oversee research projects, translate and apply the results, and lead the way to developing usable technologies.
  • The use of a scientific process–iterative, focused inquiry–in developing a research agenda and individual research projects is essential. Administrators need to understand the basics of the scientific process in order to apply the results to specific preservation conditions.
  • Working initially with a smaller number of participants, while not highly inclusive, facilitates establishing priorities and setting an agenda. Experts, specialists, and consultants can be incorporated on an as-needed basis, and results of the work can be shared with the larger community through reports and meetings.

At the second workshop in September 1993, the 20 participants reached consensus on priority needs and developed full descriptions of six required research projects. Criteria for selection included:

  • Immediacy of the problem
  • Extent of impact and significance on institutions and materials (numbers affected)
  • Ease and ability to translate research results into practice
  • Cost in time and dollars of implementing results in institutions
  • Scientific validity of research design and results
  • Extent to which project enhances and helps other research completed or underway

It was decided that each project would lead to a useful management tool that could be used by preservation administrators to make decisions about the cost-effective care, storage, and environmental conditions for their collections. Tools could be “how-to” manuals, guidelines, explanations of scientific findings in non-technical language, computerized assistance, or other devices to assist in evaluation and planning. One such device, developed by the Image Permanence Institute, Rochester, NY, is a storage guide for acetate film that includes an instruction booklet, a table and contour graph that illustrate film lifetimes under differing conditions, and a movable two-sided wheel that links temperature and relative humidity (RH) to film life.

The initial research projects, whose descriptions were distributed in spring 1994, focus on materials in large, retrospective research collections: Paper, photographic materials, and magnetic tape. The resulting management tools will provide guidance on establishing temperature and RH settings for documents with different types of paper and in different storage containers, selecting protective enclosures for film materials, evaluating PVA binding adhesives, and determining the longevity and durability of magnetic media. One project has been funded, while others are being pursued cooperatively by laboratories and funding agencies.

At the September 1993 workshop, it was agreed that participants would continue operating as the Preservation Science Council. With strong professional ties and working relationships in place, and with a productive mechanism for determining needs and setting priorities, the collaborative process can similarly be applied to technical issues raised by newer digital media.

International Program

The end of the first five years of the International Program was a time of completions and beginnings. The European Register of Microform Masters (EROMM) concluded its first phase, the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BNF) finished conversion to machine-readable format of its retrospective register of microform masters, and the European Commission on Preservation and Access was established as a formal organization.

In maintaining the Commission’s catalytic executive capacity around the globe, the International Program, with continued support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, participates in national and international meetings, opens and maintains communication channels, and responds to emerging possibilities for action that fall within the Commission’s mandates. The flexibility to engage in these types of activities derives from the program’s original goals:

  • To enrich U.S. scholarship
  • To encourage and coordinate international cooperation in eliminating redundancy and making maximum use of financial resources
  • To stimulate support of preservation activities in advanced countries
  • To enhance and support preservation activities in less developed countries

Goals were pursued within four basic areas of interest: Bibliographic control, scholarly involvement, collaboration, and education.

Bibliographic Control

The program’s overall aim is to encourage and assist efforts to convert to machine-readable, U.S.-compatible format bibliographic information about reformatted books, journals, newspapers, and other materials and to share this information with as wide a constituency as possible. Even cursory surveys show that significant microfilming–and, more recently, digital scanning–projects are underway in many countries and that an informational infrastructure of bibliographic control is needed to avoid duplication of reformatting. For bibliographic information already in machine-readable form, the Commission encouraged and assisted with the development of “nodes” (national and regional collection points) and the exchange of this information with the U.S. bibliographic utilities. As examples:

  • In 1991, the Commission contracted with the Bibliothèque Nationale, now the BNF, for the conversion to machine-readable, U.S.-compatible format of its entire retrospective register of more than 130,000 volumes of microfilmed nineteenth-century French monographs. In January 1994, the massive three-year project was completed and, as soon as the data are extrapolated from the BNF’s newly revised automated system BN-OPALE, the register will be added to the U.S. bibliographic networks for access by scholarly and library communities.
  • Since 1990, the International Program has worked with the Commission of the European Union to create a European Register of Microform Masters. The common goals were: To open cooperative opportunities to all libraries in the European Community as well as to libraries in the rest of the world; to encourage increased archival efforts by national centers; to further collaboration among European libraries; to promote international archiving standards; and to avoid duplication of effort. EROMM’s first phase was completed in December 1993, and the first database of 50,000 merged records from England, France, Germany and Portugal was made available to the Commission for distribution to the U.S. bibliographic utilities.
  • In early 1994, EROMM became a permanent unit at the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek in Göttingen, and efforts were underway to recruit new member-countries and tie them into a network of automated registers. It was estimated that by 1995 some 15 European countries will contribute machine-readable bibliographic records of microform masters to EROMM. The International Program agreed to help fund the establishment and growth of EROMM’s permanent base during the next eighteen months, providing slightly less than half the estimated cost, with EROMM partners financing the rest. EROMM, an initially obscure effort that received scant attention in European library circles, has grown into a significant and respected organization.
  • Not every country is in a position to participate at this level of technical exchange; less developed countries require assistance to reach the stage where they can join international efforts. A proven strategy is to enable one country in a region to provide guidance to its neighbors. In August 1993, the Commission arranged for a contract with the National Library of Poland calling for the conversion and enhancement of approximately 90,000 bibliographical records of microfilmed Polish imprints, serial titles, music scores, and the most precious manuscript collections in the nation’s libraries. This activity will allow Poland to participate in EROMM and other international preservation efforts and to serve as a model that can be applied to other Central and Eastern European areas.
  • Nodes for international data collection are developing in other parts of the world. For example, the Australian National Preservation Office requested and received information about EROMM’s development. In addition, discussions were underway for the EROMM model to be applied to Central and Latin America.

Scholarly Involvement

In June 1993, the Commission convened a group of scholars, librarians, archivists, and information scientists at the Rockefeller Foundation Study and Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy. Drawing upon the work of the scholarly advisory committees in the U.S., the conference attendees unanimously passed a resolution to establish a European Commission on Preservation and Access. Several European organizations distributed the Commission conference report, Preserving the Intellectual Heritage (October 1993), to more than 2,000 European scholars, librarians, archivists, university administrators, and publishers.

The new organization elected a Steering Committee and established an ad interim secretariat at the Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice-Chancellors of the European Universities in Geneva. In October 1993, the Steering Committee met in Amsterdam to select representatives of libraries, archives, publishing houses, universities, academies and learned societies for board membership. Individuals who accepted membership are:

Fernanda Maria Campos, Vice-President of the National Library of Portugal

Professor Pieter J. D. Drenth, President of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Jean Favier, President, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Professor Inge Jonsson, President, Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities
Professor Michel Jouve, Vice-President for International Relations, Université Michel de Montaigne – Bordeaux III
Sir Anthony Kenny, Chairman of the Board of the British Library
Professor Eric Ketelaar, General State Archivist of the Netherlands
Professor Klaus-Dieter Lehmann, Director General of Die Deutsche Bibliothek
Professor Adam Manikowski, Director General of the Polish National Library
Professor Geoffrey Martin, Department of History, University of Essex
Professor Jack Meadows, Dean of Education and Humanities, Department of Library and Information Studies, Loughborough University
Professor Hinrich Seidel, President of the University of Hannover
Margarita Vázquez de Parga, Director of the Spanish State Archives

At the first full meeting in March 1994 in Amsterdam, the members elected Pieter Drenth as Chairman and Klaus-Dieter Lehmann, a Commission board member, as Vice-Chairman. The press release sent to hundreds of European organizations stated that “The European Commission on Preservation and Access was formally constituted in Amsterdam on 17 March 1994 . . . to foster, develop and support in Europe collaboration among libraries, archives and allied organizations, in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to the cultural and intellectual heritage.” This development–and the growing conviction in Europe that scholars are valuable allies in our cause–was an important achievement.


The International Project worked with many countries increasing their involvement in collaborative preservation activities. These activities covered the entire system of preservation: Conservation of the original, deacidification, reformatting, and the increasing use of permanent paper. “Reformatting,” the transfer of the content of an original to another medium, attracted particular interest because of uncertainties about methodologies, costs, and technological developments.

  • When UNESCO launched the worldwide preservation initiative “Memory of the World,” it invited the Commission to participate. After attending a planning meeting in September 1993 in Pultusk, Poland, we continued to be involved in project developments. As a beginning, UNESCO contracted with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) for the development of a worldwide inventory of preservation initiatives. IFLA, in turn, asked the Commission to assist in this effort.
  • In February 1994, as a follow-up to an earlier visit to Spain (see Computerization Project of the Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain, March 1992), the Commission explored the possibility of making the archive’s bibliographic database and a subset of the corresponding image database of more than ten million documents accessible to the Digital Preservation Consortium via the Internet. Spain’s Ministry of Culture approved the project and negotiations addressing technical, operational, and financial issues are underway.
  • In the fall of 1993, the International Program Officer addressed the Conference of European National Librarians at its annual meeting in Paris. The chairman specifically requested a report on the development of EROMM and the Bellagio Conference of international scholars.
  • At the request of the United States Information Agency (USIA) and the International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX), the Commission visited more than 20 libraries and archives in Russia in May and June 1994 to assess the state of their collections and to discuss ways to collaborate on preserving Russia’s written and printed heritage. The assessment confirmed that Russia’s libraries are facing enormous preservation problems and that in our battle to save deteriorating collections there is much common ground in spite of historical, geographical, political, and linguistic differences.
  • In March 1994, the Commission contracted with Sonja Jordan, Head of Preservation at the Theodore M. Hesburgh Library at the University of Notre Dame, to conduct an assessment of the state of Bulgaria’s collections. Her report offered several recommendations for future cooperation.
  • After working with the National Library of Venezuela to plan a preservation strategy for Central and Latin America, the International Program was invited to present the draft strategy to the Fifth Assembly of the Association of Iberoamerican National Libraries (ABINIA) when it meets in Santo Domingo.
  • The German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) invited International Program participation at a meeting of its Preservation Committee. The DFG initiated a brittle books project in Germany, providing seed money to institutions in the hope of fostering regional programs.


The most frequently cited need abroad was for training in the many aspects of preservation–preservation management, microfilming, conservation, new media, and so forth. Building on past initiatives, the program continued to arrange for participation in U.S. preservation seminars and explored possibilities for exporting preservation training expertise, since some library leaders find that education in the U.S. environment bears little resemblance to the realities of their institutions.


The solid contacts and achievements of the first years of international activities bode well for a productive future. The Commission will continue to work closely with European colleagues as a permanent observer to meetings of the European Commission on Preservation and Access. Meanwhile, the creation of that organization allows us to explore possibilities in other parts of the world, most notably in Central and Latin America.

Preservation activities are moving onto the agendas of an ever-increasing number of institutions in more and more countries. In spite of a generally difficult economic and political climate, the time for new international preservation initiatives is propitious. Stimulating new ways to approach preservation challenges and helping develop effective programs that will enable countries to safeguard and provide access to their national heritage is a vital function of the International Program.

The Brittle Books Program

The Commission continued supporting the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) brittle books program and cooperatively testifying for sustained federal funding for this effort as well as for the full range of preservation and access activities of the Endowment. The U.S. Congress first provided funds for brittle books reformatting in 1988, after NEH presented its 20-year plan to rescue three million deteriorating books, serials and documents through preservation microfilming. In fiscal year 1994, the brittle books program administered by NEH’s Division of Preservation and Access completed its sixth year with expanded participation and scope. Over 70 consortia, libraries, archives and museums had received NEH grants to film approximately 624,000 embrittled volumes. The Division made grants for research and demonstration projects involving digital technologies in addition to funding the U.S. Newspaper Program; the National Heritage Preservation Program; preservation education and training programs; the cataloging, documentation and preservation of archival and special collections of humanities materials; and statewide preservation planning programs.

Testimony in support of 1995 Congressonal appropriations for the brittle books program was cosponsored by the National Humanities Alliance, Association of Research Libraries, and Commission. The May 9, 1994, testimony delivered by Dr. Jerry D. Campbell, University Librarian, Duke University, asked for sustained appropriations for current efforts, pointing to the substantial accomplishments of NEH’s Division of Preservation and Access as it has assumed a predominant position in the nationwide effort to preserve and provide access to endangered humanities resources. The testimony also requested new funds for additional research and development into digital technologies and urged that NEH be an integral part of planning for the National Information Infrastructure. A photo-CD demonstration of preserved photographic images from cooperative projects of the Commission’s Digital Preservation Consortium illustrated the type of digital technology that can be utilized to provide access to preserved materials.

The progress in the brittle books program was remarkably on target with original 1988 estimates, and it has stimulated additional preservation activities in hundreds of institutions at local, regional and national levels. Because of NEH foresightedness, libraries and archives were planning for new preservation options in a digital technology environment. The 1994 testimony summed up the program’s importance as follows:

The Division of Preservation and Access has put into place a collaborative, multi-institutional program that is experienced and expert at selecting resources, adhering to standards, preparing resources for conversion, converting resources to usable formats, and subsequently maintaining and providing broad access to the resources. Each of these components is done with an eye to the needs of end users. As we move our education and information services onto an electronic superhighway, the humanities preservation and access program is providing a perfect platform for conversion that considers not only the technologies, but the needs of the American public and the content of the materials.

The Commission continued to investigate the development of a periodic audit of preservation microfilm produced under the brittle books program to help insure their quality. Library staff from Harvard, Yale, and Ohio State Universities who had participated in a pilot test of the audit procedures met with specialists to discuss the pilot and explore the feasibility of an ongoing audit process. The Commission also continued an investigation into the feasibility of a centralized storage and distribution service for preservation microfilm.

The Preservation Managers Council explored differences in cost, quality and standards as they relate to the production of preservation and commercial microfilm. A consultant’s report on preservation microfilming and micropublishing based on the council’s meeting with a service provider is being pursued by an American Library Association subcommittee.

Technology Assessment

As the Commission and its constituencies moved further into collection, preservation and access in a hybrid print and digital world, the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee (TAAC) focused attention on long-term organizational and policy implications of this accelerating trend. TAAC concentrated on:

  • Expanding collaborative demonstration projects of the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC)
  • Reporting on the evolving national information network and the impact of digital telecommunications technologies
  • Reviewing the technology and policy implications of our growing responsibility for preserving continuing access to digital and nonprint analog collections, files and archives
  • Planning a broadcast film and video to increase public awareness of the challenge of managing continuing access to information
  • Laying the groundwork for a broadly based project to envision what higher education and scholarly communication will be like in future generations

The DPC expanded from eight to 11 members with the addition of the University of California, Berkeley; Columbia University; and the University of Michigan. DPC research and demonstration projects, described in newsletters and reports, encompassed a wide range of collection materials and formats, media and technologies, with much emphasis on the interrelationship of microfilm and digital technologies and the feasibility of electronic access to brittle print publications. New contracts for collaborative demonstration projects were initiated at Pennsylvania State University, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, the University of Southern California, and Columbia University.

In releasing an updated mission and goals statement, the consortium emphasized that its collaborative undertakings will help develop high-quality production standards, effective storage and distribution mechanisms, and well-educated personnel. Some of the goals in this process include promoting the development and use of the document structure file, cultivating research on the application of intelligent character recognition, and addressing copyright issues.

Douglas E. Van Houweling and Michael S. McGill completed the timely report, The Evolving National Information Network: Background and Challenges. This comprehensive publication surveys the status of and prospects for the National Information Infrastructure and concludes with an assessment of its significance for preservation and access.

TAAC continued to focus on the implications of assuring long-term access to the digital output of information in the face of frequent changes in standards and technology. Most of our organizational policies, response standards, and preservation budgets have developed during centuries of relatively stable media and artifacts, despite the recent enormous challenge of the brittle book. We now move into an era for which we are not fully prepared. Technological challenges are not the principal problem; instead, we must resolve policy, organizational, and cultural issues and identify and establish new areas of responsibility. A series of reports has been produced on this area, and more are planned.

Closely related to this area were the Commission’s efforts to develop, in cooperation with the American Council of Learned Societies, a one-hour broadcast film and half-hour video to alert general audiences, particularly those in the scholarly and research world, to the need to manage and preserve our rapidly increasing digital output. The major objectives of the film are threefold:

  • To raise the awareness of those who allocate the resources that will transform the way we manage electronic information for use by scholars, researchers, and educators
  • To dramatize the short lifespan of electronic hardware, software and media and to stress the importance of providing continuing access by refreshing the content
  • To portray the potential of digital technology for capture, storage and access as we change our traditional scholarly communication system

The decision to develop a film and video drew upon the success of the film Slow Fires in raising worldwide awareness and significant resources, programmatic action and collaborative efforts to cope with the brittle books problem. The new film will provide a speculative view of the future, rather than a documentation of the past–a daunting challenge to filmmaking.

The final area of activity was the development of the Vision 2010 project. It appears likely that we will be living in a hybrid analog/digital environment for a long transitional period. The new wave of electronic technologies will transform much of our society, and nowhere can they have a greater impact than on education, learning, teaching and scholarly communication. But we cannot use the full potential of technologies without fundamental changes in our traditional organizational structures.

Most planning in academic and publishing communities focuses on how organizations can gradually evolve in response to exogenous forces. TAAC is convinced that this evolutionary process will be inadequate to allow revolutionary changes of significant magnitude. The committee suggests that thinking and imagination detach from the current dilemmas and move beyond the near-term concerns of today’s stakeholders. The Vision 2010 study will bring together insightful thinkers from a range of experience to create a series of scenarios that will be periodically disseminated throughout the process as well as at its conclusion. Such an iterative approach is intended to stimulate ongoing discussion among those affected by the need for change. The Carnegie Corporation of New York provided an 18-month grant to begin this effort, which will be led by the University of Michigan School of Information and Library Studies in partnership with the Commission.

Scholarly Involvement

The increasing use of digital technologies for preserving the content of brittle books, journals, photograph collections and other nonprint resources makes the involvement of scholars in the process more essential than ever. The issue is not what the technology can provide, but what the institution (or the individual) can afford without compromising the intellectual nature of the research. We already found in our preliminary investigations with the scholarly advisory committees that once scholars are apprised of the relative costs, they are willing to adjust their original requirements based on technological potential alone.

Three events stand out in the record of advisory groups: Final reports from the Scholarly Advisory Committees on Art History and Medieval Studies and the initiation of a digitization project that emerged from earlier work of the Joint Task Force on Text and Image.

The Art History committee early in its career developed general criteria for selection of materials for preservation: (1) rarity, (2) broad usefulness, (3) historic or historiographic significance to the field, and (4) brittleness. It also attempted to identify the various types of art-historical publications that might have highest priority. Special visual materials such as catalogues and early monuments surveys were accorded high significance, but the committee concluded that it was the periodical literature of the field that was likely to be the greatest research resource for future scholarship.

To implement these judgments, the committee conducted a study to bring the expertise of art historians to bear on evaluating the broad usefulness and the general significance of particular items in the periodical literature of the field. A list of approximately 2,000 serials in the collection of the art and architecture library of Stanford University was sent to all committee members as well as to scholars in ten selected special fields. This broad range of judges selected periodicals they considered most essential for scholarship, research and teaching, basing choices on scholarly experience broadly as well as knowledge of special fields. The instruction to judges made no mention of age, condition, rarity or other criteria that might have been construed to be relevant for choosing a serial to be preserved. The committee wanted to get a pure measure of importance to scholarship, and intended to leave to collection managers the question of which of the “most essential” periodicals were most urgently in need of preservation because of their condition. The final result disseminated in the Commission newsletter was a list of some 200 periodicals that is a compound of scholarly assessments representing substantial convergence of opinion.

The Scholarly Advisory Committee on Medieval Studies recommended that the Medieval Academy of America continue the life of its Committee on Libraries charged with the encouragement and review of preservation efforts, and that it consider ways in which issues of preservation and new information technologies can be incorporated into graduate curricula. The group’s final report encouraged a more active role in bringing about international scholarly cooperation on issues of library preservation and included a list of funded preservation projects covering material of interest to medievalists.

Interest generated from earlier work of the Joint Task Force on Text and Image led to a Commission contract with Columbia University on preserving large-scale color images of maps. The project was designed to explore scanning directly from the originals and produce full-frame fiche from the digital record for archival storage.


Preservation and access options grow increasingly complex as technologies and organizations change. Yet the basic goal of the Commission and its constituencies remains firm: To ensure continuing access to the accumulated human record as far into the future as possible. Working in tandem with other Commission initiatives, the communication program sought to promote a focused preservation and access agenda, develop clear and accurate information, and advocate durable support for our work and goals.

Broadening the range of involved constituencies beyond library and archival communities was a primary goal for the year. In the first few years of the Commission, the nationwide public television showings of the film Slow Fires, which illustrates the deterioration of the world’s intellectual heritage, captured the attention of the general public. Showings of the half-hour video version of that film continued at numerous scholarly and academic conferences and library fund-raising events, while international use of the video version increased significantly with French, Spanish, Russian, Portuguese, and Czech Republic audiences. The video was made available in both French and Spanish and in multiple technical formats.

The growth of the controlled distribution list to approximately 1,800 organizations and individuals reflected the sustained interest of editors and publishers, regional and state networks, professional associations, university and college administrators, faculty and scholars, U.S. government officials, and business and industry. Requests increased for cooperative arrangements to distribute Commission reports in other journals, books, and through electronic services, and several international organizations were granted permission to reprint, and sometimes translate, Commission reports for expanded distribution in Western and Eastern Europe and Central and Latin America. Commission publications also were made available on the Internet by several servers.

As new technological and managerial concerns surfaced, the newsletter expanded coverage through Commission board columns and special inserts. Reports and papers documented the outcomes of Commission programs, with particular emphasis on cooperative demonstration projects and explorations of the preservation implications of a digital library environment.

Grants from the Gladys Krieble Delmas and H.W. Wilson Foundations supported increased newsletter distribution, media advocacy, and meeting presentations to attract additional scholars and educators and publishers to preservation and access initiatives. Collaborative arangements with the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), the Association of American Publishers, and the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works enabled new exchanges of information, articles, and publications.

ACLS served as a primary advisor for contact with scholarly societies, providing 4,000 names and addresses for a special distribution of publications. Eleven scholarly and publishing associations agreed to host exhibits, panels, and forums at their future annual meetings. To highlight the challenges of evolving technologies, the Commission created a modular exhibit whose photographic montage calls attention to the transitional nature of hardware, software, and media with the overlying message, “New Technologies, New Access, New Risks.” The exhibit was loaned to a number of libraries and museums to promote their own institutional goals and was used by the Commission at scholars’ annual meetings.

In conjunction with the new exhibit, the Commission invited libraries, archives, and museums to cooperate in developing technology displays to illustrate digital options for providing continuing access to text and image, while underscoring the importance of preserving the original integrity of scholarly materials. The University of Southern California, a member of the Digital Preservation Consortium, displayed photo-CD access to endangered photographs at annual meetings of the American Historical Association and the Association of American Publishers Professional/Scholarly Publishing Division. The National Agricultural Library demonstrated an agricultural database at the annual meeting of the Association of American University Presses.

Other institutions invited to collaborate in future displays are The Johns Hopkins University, The Smithsonian Institution Libraries, The Historical Resources Business Unit of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village and the University of Michigan Historical Center for the Health Sciences SourceLINK Project, and The Pennsylvania State University Libraries.

Creating viable options for preserving and providing access to scholarly materials requires the knowledge, commitment, and focused attention of many constituencies, some long devoted to the cause, and others newly intrigued by the possibilities of a rapidly changing technological and organizational environment. The effectiveness of the communication program has been based primarily on its ability to promote a clear, visionary, yet realistic agenda to many previously uncommitted constituencies and to engage their interest and support. The charge for the future is to strengthen and expand the visibility and awareness of preservation needs and to continue to seek cooperative solutions to common problems.

Institutional and Education Initiatives

Intensified preservation and access activities, new information technologies, and the need for more preservation experts has stimulated interest in redefining professional education programs. The Preservation Managers Council has noted the need to build up management skills including long-range planning, fiscal administration, problem solving and collaboration. Responding to these needs, the Commission sought to stimulate renewed and productive curriculum reform for library education.

A grant from the Charles E. Culpeper Foundation supported investigation into changing educational requirements for librarians as digital technologies are increasingly used for both the preservation of deteriorating paper documents and the creation of new knowledge. A two-and-one-half day Educators’ Forum for library school deans at Belmont Conference Center, Elkridge, MD, in January 1994, explored the changed environment and the need for a critical reassessment of professional education. Eight individuals who had worked with the Commission were invited to share their professional experiences with the deans and to speculate on educational requirements for the librarian and archivist of 2010. The group agreed that skilled persons will be needed to build, maintain and operate the digital information infrastructure, and that there will be unprecedented collaboration within and among institutions.

The remaining portion of the Culpeper Foundation grant will support a cooperative venture with the University of Michigan School of Information and Library Studies (SILS), which recently received a grant from the Kellogg Foundation for a five-year project to restructure the professional information and library studies program. SILS will be inviting participation from other information and library studies schools during the coming year.

A second Preservation Management Seminar for College Libraries was conducted by SOLINET, Atlanta, GA, July 1993 at Wellesley College. Evaluations from the 21 participants, most of them librarians with part-time preservation responsibilities, confirmed that the seminar provided the necessary guidance to establish and strengthen preservation activities. The seminar included 69 hours of lecture, structured discussions and small-group work sessions. Faculty drawn from staffs of several libraries helped students gain a deeper technical understanding of preservation, build judgment and problem-solving skills, and develop realistic priorities for management preservation as a decentralized program.

Preservation Management Seminars were designed in 1990-91 by the Commission’s College Libraries Committee and SOLINET, with funding assistance from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The committee helped refine the 1993 program and chose participants on a competitive application process, with the Commission providing one scholarship. Four participants from outside the U.S. attended, with two Central Americans supported by International Program funds. The Preservation Service of the AMIGOS Bibliographic Council, Dallas, TX, requested committee assistance with a seminar planned for summer 1995.

The College Libraries Committee also continued to serve as an education and communication link between the Commission and college-level institutions. The committee’s exploratory Project IBID was concluded after its directors determined that the major goal–to stimulate interest in using on-demand printing technology to provide access to out-of-print college instructional and research materials–had been accomplished. During IBID’s early phases, project directors conducted a feasibility study on using digital technology for reprinting resources and met with several publishers and college librarians about the concept. With many commercial and university presses acquiring on-demand printing capabilities, they concluded that there was less need for the centralized operations proposed in 1991.

In continued advocacy for the use of long-lived alkaline paper for materials of enduring value, the Commission newsletter reported on national and international developments regarding paper manufacturing and the use of recycled papers, new standards for permanent paper composition, developments in U.S. national policy on permanent papers, the increasing availability of permanent papers in the U.S. and internationally, and mass deacidification developments.

Archival practices, policies, and collections are sufficiently different from those of libraries to warrant special study. Recognizing that there are a number of organizations dedicated to archives, the Commission has played a supportive role to help assure future access to important scholarly and historical records. Previously, the Commission had sponsored a two-year investigation into appraisal guidelines and practice and documentation strategy as the bases for a methodology for archival selection for preservation. The Research Libraries Group, Mountain View, CA, field-tested the methodology’s decision model and concluded that it was as yet inadequate for making long-term preservation plans. While seen as a useful first step to systematically examine a repository collection, the decision model did not yield enough detailed information about an archives’ preservation needs. Participants suggested that future versions provide more rigorous sampling methodology that would result in more statistically reliable data.

Publications and Reports

July 1, 1993 – June 30, 1994

Published by the Commission

The Commission on Preservation and Access. Annual Report, 1992-1993. Free.

The Commission on Preservation and Access. Newsletter: nos. 58-68 (July 1993 – June 1994). Free.

Van Houweling, Douglas and Michael McGill. The Evolving National Information Network: Background and Challenges. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee (July 1993). $15.00.

Child, Margaret. Directory of Information Sources on Scientific Research Related to the Preservation of Sound Recordings, Still and Moving Images and Magnetic Tape (September 1993). $10.00.

Preserving the Intellectual Heritage. A Report of the Bellagio Conference, June 7-10, 1993, Held at the Rockefeller Foundation Study and Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy (October 1993). $10.00.

Preservation Science Council.Phase I of Research To Support the Archival Management of Materials Created on Magnetic Media (January 1994). Free.

Preservation Science Council. Research Project on Temperature and RH Dependence of Paper Deterioration
(January 1994). Free.

The Commission on Preservation and Access. Working Paper on the Future (February 1994). $5.00.

Preservation Science Council. Research on the Effect of Lignin on Paper Permanence (February 1994). Free.

Graham, Peter S. Intellectual Preservation: Electronic Preservation of the Third Kind (March 1994). $10.00.

Waters, Donald and Anne Kenney. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals Statement
(March 1994). $10.00.

Preservation Science Council. Research on the Effect of Moisture in Collections Under Fluctuating RH and Temperature(June 1994). Free.

Preservation Science Council. Longevity Tests for Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesives Used in Double-Fan Adhesive Binding (June 1994). Free.

Conway, Paul and Shari Weaver. The Setup Phase of Project Open Book (June 1994). $10.00.

Sebera, Donald. Isoperms: An Environmental Management Tool (June 1994). $10.00.

Commission sponsors receive all publications on a complimentary basis. For all others, reports are available free unless a price is listed.

Published Elsewhere

Battin, Patricia. “The Primary Role of the Commission on Preservation and Access” and “The Management of Knowledge: Issues for the Twenty-First Century.” In Research Libraries–Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow: A Selection of Papers Presented at the International Seminars, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Library Center, Kanazawa, Japan, 1982-1992, edited by William J. Welsh, 319-324 and 397-408. Papers presented at the 7th International Seminar, 1989. Kanazawa: Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Library Center, in cooperation with Greenwood Press and Yushodo Co., 1993.

Battin, Patricia. “From Preservation to Access: Paradigm for the Nineties.” IFLA Journal 19, no. 4 (1993): 367-373. Paper delivered during the 59th IFLA Council and General Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 22-28 August 1993.

Campbell, Jerry D. “Statement on the Fiscal Year 1995 Appropriations for the National Endowment for the Humanities.” Speaking on behalf of the Association of Research Libraries, Commission on Preservation and Access, and National Humanities Alliance, before the Subcommittee on the Interior and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives, May 9, 1994.

Druzik, James R. “A Research Initiative for Preservation in Libraries.” Conservation, The Getty Conservation Institute Newsletter 8, no. 2 (Summer 1994): 14.

“Invitation from the Commission on Preservation and Access.” American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works Newsletter 19, no. 2 (March 1994): 23-24.

“Preservation Science Projects.” National Media Lab BITS 4, no. 1 (May 1994): 8.

Sitts, Maxine. “The Commission on Preservation and Access: Catalyst and Advocate for Preserving Access to Our Intellectual Heritage.” Louisiana Library Association Bulletin 55, no. 3 (Winter 1993): 121-123.

Rütimann, Hans. “Preservation: An International Perspective.” In Japan-U.S. Collaboration in Enhancing International Access to Scholarly Information: Looking Toward the 21st Century, edited by Tadeo Shimizu, Jiro Asano, Haruki Nagata, Warren M. Tsuneishi, Theodore F. Welch, and Hideo Kaneko, 215-226. Fifth Japan-U.S. Conference on Libraries and Information Science in Higher Education, Tokyo, Japan, October 6-9, 1992. Tokyo: Universal Academy Press, 1993.


Druzik, James R. “Perspectives of the Scientist: On the Myopia of Science and the Dynamic Range of the Human Mind” (June 1993 newsletter insert). Reprinted in European Research Libraries Cooperation: The Liber Quarterly3, no. 3 (1993): 231-234.

Jones, C. Lee. “Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems” (July 1993 newsletter insert). Reprinted in European Research Libraries Cooperation: The Liber Quarterly 3, no. 3 (1993): 289-292.

Rütimann, Hans. The International Project 1992 Update (January 1993). Reprinted in Microform Review 22, no. 3 (Summer 1993): 116-126.

Rütimann, Hans and M. Stuart Lynn. Computerization Project of the Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain(March 1992). Reprinted in INFOLAC 7, no. 2 (Spring 1994): 34-39.

Van Houweling, Douglas and Michael McGill. The Evolving National Information Network: Background and Challenges. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee
(July 1993). Reprinted in European Research Libraries Cooperation: The Liber Quarterly 4, no. 1 (1994): 1-37.

Waters, Donald and Shari Weaver. The Organizational Phase of Project Open Book (September 1992). Reprinted in Microform Review 22, no. 4 (Fall 1993): 152-159.

Willis, Donald. A Hybrid Systems Approach to Preservation of Printed Materials (November 1992). Part One reprinted in Microform Review 22, no. 4 (Fall 1993): 168-178.

Willis, Donald. A Hybrid Systems Approach to Preservation of Printed Materials (November 1992). Part Two reprinted in Microform Review 23, no. 1 (Winter 1994): 18-25.

College Libraries Committee

Willis E. Bridegam
Librarian of the College
Amherst College

Barbara J. Brown
University Librarian
Washington and Lee University

David J. Cohen
Dean of Libraries
College of Charleston

Caroline M. Coughlin
Library Director
Drew University

Michael J. Haeuser
Head Librarian
Gustavus Adolphus College

Victoria L. Hanawalt
College Librarian
Reed College

Kathleen Moretto Spencer (Chair)
Associate Vice President for Information Systems and Library Services
Franklin & Marshall College

Digital Preservation Consortium

Millicent D. Abell
University Librarian
Yale University

Patricia Battin
Commission on Preservation and Access

Nancy Cline
Dean of University Libraries
Pennsylvania State University

Richard De Gennaro
Roy E. Larsen Librarian of Harvard College
Harvard University

Richard Ferguson
University Director, Computing and Information Systems
Yale University

Stephen Hall
Director, Office for Information Technology
Harvard University

Fred Harris
Vice Chancellor for Computing and Telecommunications
University of Tennessee

Douglas E. Van Houweling (Appointed)
Vice Provost for Information Technology
University of Michigan

Paula Kaufman
Dean of Libraries
University of Tennessee

Donald Koepp
University Librarian
Princeton University

Peter Lyman
University Librarian and Dean
University of Southern California

M. Stuart Lynn
Vice President, Information Technologies
Cornell University

Salvatore Meringolo
Assistant Dean and Head, Collections and Reference Services
Pennsylvania State University

Donald E. Riggs (Appointed)
Dean of University Library
University of Michigan

Susan Rosenblatt (Appointed)
Associate Librarian for Technical Services
University of California, Berkeley

Alain Seznec
University Librarian
Cornell University

Elaine Sloan (Appointed)
Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian
Columbia University

Robert L. Street
Vice Provost and Dean of Libraries and Information Resources
Stanford University

Lee Varian
Director, Systems and Technical Support
Computing and Information Technology
Princeton University

Donald J. Waters
Associate University Librarian
Yale University

Preservation Managers Council

Patricia Battin (Chair)
Commission on Preservation and Access

Margaret M. Byrnes
Head, Preservation Section
National Library of Medicine

Ellen Cunningham-Kruppa
Preservation Officer, General Libraries
University of Texas at Austin

Richard Frieder
Head, Preservation Department, University Library
Northwestern University

Kenneth E. Harris (Resigned)
Director for Preservation
Library of Congress

Diane Nester Kresh (Appointed)
Acting Director, Preservation Directorate
Library of Congress

Carolyn Clark Morrow
Malloy-Rabinowitz Preservation Librarian
Harvard University

Barclay Ogden
Head, Conservation Department, University Library
University of California, Berkeley

Christine Ward
Chief, Bureau of Archival Services
New York State Archives and Records Administration

Preservation Science Council

Wes Boomgaarden
Preservation Officer, University Libraries
Ohio State University

Connie Brooks
Head, Preservation Department, University Libraries
Stanford University

Sherry Byrne
Preservation Librarian
University of Chicago

Margaret M. Byrnes
Head, Preservation Section
National Library of Medicine

Paul Conway
Head, Preservation Department, University Library
Yale UniversityEllen Cunningham-Kruppa

Preservation Officer, General Libraries
University of Texas at Austin

James R. Druzik
Conservation Scientist
The Getty Conservation Institute

Richard Frieder
Head, Preservation Department, University Library
Northwestern University

Janet Gertz
Assistant Director for Preservation, University Libraries
Columbia University

Diane Nester Kresh
Acting Director, Preservation Directorate
Library of Congress

Jan Merrill-Oldham
Head, Preservation Department, University Library
University of Connecticut

Carla Montori
Preservation Officer, University Library
University of Michigan

Carolyn Clark Morrow
Malloy-Rabinowitz Preservation Librarian
Harvard University

Barclay Ogden
Head, Conservation Department, University Library
University of California, Berkeley

James M. Reilly
Image Permanence Institute
Rochester Institute of Technology

Donald K. Sebera

Peter Sparks

James Stroud
Chief Conservation Officer
Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
University of Texas at Austin

Karen Turko
Head, Preservation Services, University Libraries
University of Toronto

Christine Ward
Chief, Bureau of Archival Services
New York State Archives and Records Administration

Scholarly Advisory Committee on Art History

Nancy S. Allen
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Elizabeth Boone
Director of Pre-Columbian Studies
Dumbarton Oaks

Richard Brilliant
Anna S. Garbedian Professor in the Humanities
Department of Art History and Archaeology
Columbia University

Marvin Eisenberg
Professor of Art History Emeritus
University of Michigan

Lorenz Eitner
Osgood Hooker Professor Emeritus, Department of Art
Stanford University

Larry Silver (Chair)
Professor, Department of Art History
Northwestern University

Deirdre C. Stam
Professor, School of Library and Information Science
Catholic University of America

Scholarly Advisory Committee on Medieval Studies

Milton McC. Gatch
Director, The Burke Library
Union Theological Seminary

Steven Horwitz
Curator, Robbins Collection, School of Law
University of California, Berkeley

Mark D. Jordan
Associate Professor, Medieval Institute
University of Notre Dame

Christopher Kleinhenz
Professor, Medieval Studies Program
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Lilian M. C. Randall
Research Curator of Manuscripts
Walters Art Gallery

Susanne F. Roberts (Chair)
Humanities Bibliographer, University Library
Yale University

Jan M. Ziolkowski
Professor, Department of the Classics
Harvard University

Scholarly Advisory Committee on Renaissance Studies

Peter Graham
Associate University Librarian for Technical and Networked Information
Rutgers University Library

Marcella Grendler (Chair)
Associate University Librarian for Special Collections
University of North Carolina

David Javitch
Professor, Department of Comparative Literature
New York University

Pauline Watts
Professor, History Department
Sarah Lawrence College

Georgianna Ziegler
Reference Librarian
Folger Shakespeare Library

Technology Assessment Advisory Committee

Rowland C. W. Brown (Chair)
Commission on Preservation and Access

Brian L. Hawkins (Appointed)
Vice President, Academic Planning and Administration
Brown University
Douglas E. Van Houweling

Vice Provost for Information Technology
University of Michigan

Michael Lesk
Executive Director, Computer Science Research

Peter Lyman
University Librarian and Dean
University of Southern California

M. Stuart Lynn
Vice President, Information Technologies
Cornell University

Robert Spinrad
Vice President, Technology Analysis and Development
Xerox Corporation

Robert L. Street
Vice Provost and Dean of Libraries and Information Resources
Stanford University

The Commission on Preservation and Access

Board of Directors

Millicent D. Abell
University Librarian
Yale University

Patricia Battin
Commission on Preservation and Access

Betty G. Bengtson
Director of University Libraries
University of Washington

Billy E. Frye (Chair)
Vice President for Academic Affairs and Provost
Emory University

Barbara Goldsmith (Resigned)
New York Public Library

David B. Gracy II
Associate Dean and Governor Bill Daniel Professor in Archival Enterprise, Graduate School of Library and Information Science
University of Texas at Austin

J. L. Heilbron
Vice Chancellor
University of California, Berkeley

Carole Huxley
Deputy Commissioner for Cultural Education
New York State Education Department

Paul LeClerc (Elected)
New York Public Library

Klaus-Dieter Lehmann
Director General
Die Deutsche Bibliothek

W. David Penniman (Resigned)
Council on Library Resources

Cornelius J. Pings
Association of American Universities

Winston Tabb
Associate Librarian for Collections Services
Library of Congress

Nicholas A. Veliotes
Association of American Publishers

Sidney Verba
Harvard University Library


Patricia Battin

Pamela M. Davis
Executive Assistant

Linda J. Hutter

William J. Koerner II
Communications Assistant

Maxine K. Sitts
Program Officer


Rowland C. W. Brown
Technology Assessment

Henry W. Riecken
Scholarly Advisory Committees

Hans Rütimann
International Program

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