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CLIR Reports

Publications and reports for the Cultural Heritage Community

CLIR has published for decades on topics relating to preservation, digital libraries, economics of information, trends in information use, international developments, and the changing role of the library.

How to Access Reports

The full text of most of our publications is available, for free, on this site. Find the title you are interested in from the list below, click on it, and you will be taken to the report’s abstract page where you can access the text electronically.

Thank you to Our Sponsors and Members

CLIR reports are made possible in part by support from our sponsoring institutions. Sponsors receive complimentary copies of our print publications. Learn how you can join CLIR today.

Full List of Reports and Publications – 1990 to today

This list is in chronological order with the most recent reports at the top.

Latest Reports

Profiles in Data and Software Curation, by Inna Kouper, October 2023. pub 190

Learning from and Making Use of Digitized Hidden Collections: Proceedings from the 2022 Digitizing Hidden Collections Symposium, October 12-13, 2022, October 2023. pub 189

The Chinese Archive: A Pocket Manual, October 2023. pub 188

Remotely Useful: Practical Lessons for Northern Community Archiving, August 2023. pub 187

CLIR Fellowships in Data Curation: Cultivating Resilient Networks of Support for New Scholars, August 2023. pub 186

A Green New Deal for Archives, July 2023. pub 185

Adventure, Inquiry, Discovery: CLIR-Mellon Fellows and the Archives, May 2023. pub 184

Evaluating Equity and Inclusion in Cultural Heritage Grantmaking: CLIR’s Amplifying Unheard Voices Program, February 2023. pub 183

2022 – 2021

Supporting Software Preservation Services in Research and Memory Organizations, November 2022. pub 182

Accelerated Aging of Polyester-Based Legacy Audio Magnetic Tape Stock, August 2022. pub 181

Creating Access to HBCU Library Alliance Archives: Needs, Capacity, and Technical Planning, March 2022. pub 180

Curated Futures Project: A Third Library is Possible, February 2022. pub 179

Capacity Assessment of Latin American and Caribbean Partners: A Symposium About Open Access, Technological Needs, and Institutional Sustainability, February 2021. pub 178

2019 – 2000

Can We Do More? An Examination of the Potential Roles, Contributors, Incentives, and Frameworks to Sustain Large-Scale Digital Preservation, by Carol Mandel. September 2019.

The Foundations of Discovery: A Report on the Assessment of the Impacts of the Cataloging Hidden Collections Program, 2008–2019, September 2019. pub 177

Postdoctoral Fellowships in Data Curation for the Sciences and Social Sciences: Early Experiences and Contexts, April 2019.

3D/VR in the Academic Library: Emerging Practices and Trends, February 2019. pub176

The Future of Email Archives, August 2018. pub175

A Splendid Torch: Learning and Teaching in Today’s Academic Libraries, September 2017. pub174

Keepers of Our Digital Future, December 2016. pub173; Supplemental Assessment, October 2018.

National Institute for Technology in Liberal Education: An Assessment, August 2016. pub172

The Open Data Imperative: How the Cultural Heritage Community Can Address the Federal Mandate, July 2016. pub171

Terra Cognita: Graduate Students in the Archives, May 2016. pub170

Innovation, Collaboration, and Models, Cheryl Oestreicher, editor. November 2015. pub169

Building Expertise to Support Digital Scholarship: A Global Perspective by Vivian Lewis, Lisa Spiro, Xuemao Wang, and Jon E. Cawthorne. October 2015. pub168

The Process of Discovery: The CLIR Postdoctoral Fellowship Program and the Future of the Academy, John C. Maclachlan, Elizabeth A. Waraksa, and Christa Williford, editors. September 2015. pub167

The Once and Future Publishing Library by Ann Okerson and Alex Holzman. July 2015. pub166

Getting Found: SEO Cookbook by Patrick O’Brien and Kenning Arlitsch. May 2015. pub165

ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation, Sam Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Robin Pike, Kathlin Smith, editors. May 2015. pub164

The Center of Excellence Model for Information Services by Joy Kirchner, José Diaz, Geneva Henry, Susan Fliss, John Culshaw, Heather Gendron, and Jon E. Cawthorne. February 2015. pub163

The Changing Landscape of Library and Information Services: What Presidents, Provosts, and Finance Officers Need to Know by Richard Holmgren and Gene Spencer. September 2014. pub162

Participatory Design in Academic Libraries, New Reports and Findings. Nancy Fried Foster, Editor. February 2014. pub161

Research Data Management: Principles, Practices, and Prospects. November 2013. pub160

Born Digital: Guidance for Donors, Dealers, and Archival Repositories by Gabriela Redwine, Megan Barnard, Kate Donovan, Erika Farr, Michael Forstrom, Will Hansen, Jeremy Leighton John, Nancy Kuhl, Seth Shaw, and Susan Thomas. October 2013. pub159

The Survival of American Silent Feature Films: 1912–1929 by David Pierce. September 2013. pub158

Images of Works of Art in Museum Collections: The Experience of Open Access by Kristin Kelly. June 2013. pub157

The Library of Congress National Recording Preservation Plan. December 2012. pub156

Participatory Design in Academic Libraries: Methods, Findings, and Implementations with introduction by Nancy Fried Foster. October 2012. pub155

The Problem of Data by Lori Jahnke, Andrew Asher, and Spencer D. C. Keralis, with an introduction by Charles Henry. August 2012. pub154

Core Infrastructure Considerations for Large Digital Libraries. July 2012. pub153

Linked Data for Libraries, Museums, and Archives: Survey and Workshop Report. October 2011. pub152

One Culture. Computationally Intensive Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. June 2012. pub151

“Rome Wasn’t Digitized in a Day”: Building a Cyberinfrastructure for Digital Classicists by Alison Babeu. August 2011. pub150

Digital Forensics and Born-Digital Content in Cultural Heritage Collections by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum, Richard Ovenden, Gabriela Redwine, with research assistance from Rachel Donahue. December 2010. pub149

The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States: A National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age. August 2010. pub148

The Idea of Order: Transforming Research Collections for 21st Century Scholarship. June 2010. pub147


Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis. September 2009. pub146

Working Together or Apart: Promoting the Next Generation of Digital Scholarship. March 2009. pub145

Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives by June M. Besek. March 2009. pub144

A Survey of Digital Humanities Centers in the United States by Diane M. Zorich. November 2008. pub143

No Brief Candle: Reconceiving Research Libraries for the 21st Century. Part 1 of this report is also available in Arabic and Chinese. August 2008. pub142

Preservation in the Age of Large-Scale Digitization, A White Paper by Oya Y. Rieger. February 2008. pub141

Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings by Karen Markey, Soo Young Rieh, Beth St. Jean, Jihyun Kim, and Elizabeth Yakel. February 2007. pub140

Library Workflow Redesign: Six Case Studies by Marilyn Mitchell, editor. January 2007. pub139

E-Journal Archiving Metes and Bounds: A Survey of the Landscape by Anne R. Kenney, Richard Entlich, Peter B. Hirtle, Nancy Y. McGovern, and Ellie L. Buckley. September 2006. pub138

Capturing Analog Sound for Digital Preservation: Report of a Roundtable Discussion of Best Practices for Transferring Analog Discs and Tapes. March 2006. pub137

Shidhulai Swanirvar Sangstha: Bringing Information Technology to Rural Bangladesh by Boat by Arshad Mahmud. February 2006. pub136

Copyright Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Pre-1972 Commercial Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives by June M. Besek. December 2005. pub135

Acquiring Copyright Permission to Digitize and Provide Open Access to Books by Denise Troll Covey. October 2005. pub134

Survey of Reissues of U.S. Recordings by Tim Brooks. August 2005. pub133

A Kaleidoscope of Digital American Literature by Martha L. Brogan with assistance from Daphnée Rentfrow. September 2005. pub132

Århus Public Libraries Embracing Diversity, Empowering Citizens in Denmark by Jack Jackson. July 2005. pub131

EVERGREEN Bringing Information Resources to Rural China by Geoffrey Z. Liu. July 2005. pub130

Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space. February 2005. pub129

Survey of the State of Audio Collections in Academic Libraries by Abby Smith, David Randal Allen, and Karen Allen. August 2004. pub128

The Nonsubscription Side of Periodicals: Changes in Library Operations and Costs between Print and Electronic Formats by Roger C. Schonfeld, Donald W. King, Ann Okerson, Eileen Gifford Fenton. June 2004. pub127

Access in the Future Tense. April 2004. pub126

E-Powering the People: South Africa’s Smart Cape Access Project by Susan Valentine. March 2004. pub125

Business Planning for Cultural Heritage Institutions by Liz Bishoff and Nancy Allen. January 2004. pub124

Reflecting on Leadership by Karin Wittenborg, Chris Ferguson, Michael A. Keller. December 2003. pub123

Libraries Designed for Learning by Scott Bennett. November 2003. pub122

Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs: A Guide for Librarians and Archivists by Fred R. Byers. October 2003. pub121 🥇 top-download

Use and Users of Electronic Library Resources: An Overview and Analysis of Recent Research Studies by Carol Tenopir, with the assistance of Brenda Hitchcock and Ashley Pillow. August 2003. pub120

Emerging Visions for Access in the Twenty-first Century Library CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. August 2003. pub119

A Survey of Digital Cultural Heritage Initiatives and Their Sustainability Concerns by Diane M. Zorich. June 2003. pub118

Developing Print Repositories: Models for Shared Preservation and Access by Bernard F. Reilly, Jr. with research and analysis by Barbara DesRosiers, Center for Research Libraries. June 2003. pub117

National Digital Preservation Initiatives: An Overview of Developments in Australia, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom and of Related International Activity by Neil Beagrie. April 2003. pub116

Library Buildings and the Building of a Collaborative Research Collection at the Tri-College Library Consortium by Judy Luther, Linda Bills, Amy McColl, Norm Medeiros, Amy Morrison, Eric Pumroy, and Peggy Seiden. April 2003. pub115

New-Model Scholarship: How Will It Survive? by Abby Smith. March 2003. pub114

Biblored, Colombia’s Innovative Library Network by María Cristina Caballero. February 2003. pub113

Copyright Issues Relevant to the Creation of a Digital Archive: A Preliminary Assessment by June M. Besek. January 2003. pub112

The State of Preservation Programs in American College and Research Libraries: Building a Common Understanding and Action Agenda by Anne R. Kenney and Deirdre C. Stam. December 2002. pub111

Dimensions and Use of the Scholarly Information Environment: Introduction to a Data Set by Amy Friedlander. November 2002. pub110

The Digital Library: A Biography by Daniel Greenstein and Suzanne E. Thorin. Second edition December 2002, first edition September 2002. pub109

Diffuse Libraries: Emergent Roles for the Research Library in the Digital Age by Wendy Pradt Lougee. August 2002. pub108

The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. July 2002. pub107

Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving. April 2002. pub106

Summary report of a meeting held on February 4-5, 2002 to consider requirements for am archivists’ toolkit by Brad Westbrook. March, 2002.

Draft benchmark functions of digital masters. March, 2002.

Assessing Shibboleth as a means of authenticating and authorizing access to electronic scholarly publications. A DLF/CNI workshop by Peter Brantley (NYU), D. Greenstein (DLF), Clifford Lynch (CNI). February 2002.

Usage and Usability Assessment: Library Practices and Concerns by Denise Troll Covey. January 2002. pub105

Benchmark for digital reproductions of monographs and serials. As endorsed by the DLF. January 2002.

Evaluation of the Digital Library Federation, 1995-2001. Summary report January 2002.

Scholarly Work in the Humanities and the Evolving Information Environment by William S. Brockman, Laura Neumann, Carole L. Palmer, Tonyia J. Tidline. December 2001. pub104

Registry of Archival Masters of Digital Monographs and Serials. Functional Requirements by Dale Flecker. December, 2001.

Registry of Digital Reproductions of Paper-Based Monographs and Serials. Functional Requirements by Dale Flecker. December, 2001.

Registry of Archival Masters of Digital Monographs and Serials by Dale Flecker. December 2001.

Report on a meeting convened to evaluate possible implementation paths for a registry of digital monographs and serials by Daniel Greenstein, December 2001.

The Evidence in Hand: Report of the Task Force on the Artifact in Library Collections. November 2001. pub103

Proceedings of the 2000 Sino-United States Symposium and Workshop on Library and Information Science Education in the Digital Age. November 5-10, 2000; Wuhan, China. D. E. Perushek, Editor. 2001. pub102

Strategies for Building Digitized Collections by Abby Smith. September 2001. pub101

Building and Sustaining Digital Collections: Models for Libraries and Museums. August 2001. pub100

Selection and Presentation of Commercially Available Electronic Resources: Issues and Practices by Timothy D. Jewell. July 2001. pub99

Draft benchmark for digital reproductions of printed books and serial publications by Daniel Greenstein. July 2001.

Registry of Digital Reproductions of Paper-based Books and Serials by Dale Flecker and Daniel Greenstein. July 2001.

Registry of Digital Reproductions of Paper-based Books and Serials.Functional requirements by Dale Flecker. July 2001.

Report of a meeting of the DLF on preservation reformatting practices by Daniel Greenstein. July 2001.

More Access at Less Cost: The Case for a Digital Registry by Gerald George. July 2001.

Dimension and Use of the Scholarly Information Environment by Lynn Dagar, Daniel Greenstein, Leigh Watson Healy. July 2001.

Building Sustainable Collections of Free Third-Party Web Resources by Louis A. Pitschmann. June 2001. pub98

A Collaborative Approach to Collection Storage: The Five-College Library Depository by Willis E. Bridegam. June 2001. pub97

Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis. May 2001. pub96

Report Imaging Practitioners Meeting on 30 March 2001 by Stephen Chapman. May 2001.

Registry of Digital Reproductions of Paper-based Books and Serials by Daniel Greenstein. April 2001.

Shared Cataloguing Tool for Visual Resources by Max Marmor and Sherman Clarke. April 2001.

Tools for Academic Electronic Publishing by Maria Bonn. March 2001.

Website of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation’s e-journal archiving program. February 2001.

The Open Archives Initiative and Digital Libraries by Daniel Greenstein. January 2001. by Daniel Greenstein. January 2001.

How and Why Libraries are Changing by Denise Troll. January 2001.

Digital Library Policies, Organizations, and Practices by Daniel Greenstein and Suzanne Thorin. January 2001.

Preservation Science Survey: An Overview of Recent Developments in Research on the Conservation of Selected Analog Library and Archival Materials by Henk J. Porck and René Teygeler. December 2000. pub95

Towards a Shared Cataloguing Tool for VR Collections by Daniel Greenstein. December 2000.

Structural, technical, and administrative metadata standards by Jerome McDonough. December 2000.

The Academic Image Cooperative by Daniel Greenstein. 2000.

White Paper on Electronic Journal Usage Statistics by Judy Luther. October 2000. pub94

Final Report of the AIC as submitted to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation by Daniel Greenstein. August 2000.

A New Approach to Finding Research Materials on the Web by Priscilla Caplan. July 2000.

Risk Management of Digital Information: A File Format Investigation by Gregory W. Lawrence, William R. Kehoe, Oya Y. Rieger, William H. Walters, and Anne R. Kenney. June 2000. pub93

Authenticity in a Digital Environment. May 2000. pub92

Minimum criteria for an archival repository of digital scholarly journals, version 1.2 by Daniel Greenstein and Deanna Marcum. May 2000.

Strategies for developing sustainable and scaleable digital library collections by Daniel Greenstein. May 2000.

Systems of Knowledge Organization for Digital Libraries: Beyond Traditional Authority Files by Gail Hodge. April 2000. pub91

The AIC Draft Collection Strategy and Development Framework by Daniel Greenstein. April 2000.

Usage, Usability, and User support by Daniel Greenstein. April 2000.

Managing Cultural Assets from a Business Perspective by Laura Price and Abby Smith. March 2000. pub90

A Digital Library Authentication and Authorization Architecture. March 2000.

Digital Library Authentication and Authorization. March 2000.

Report of the Making of America II DTD DLF Workshop by Jerome McDonough. March 2000.

Enduring Paradigm, New Opportunities: The Value of the Archival Perspective in the Digital Environment by Anne J. Gilliland-Swetland. February 2000. pub89

Collections, Content, and the Web. February 2000. pub88

AIC Brochure by Rebecca Graham. January 2000.

1999 – 1990

The Making of America II Testbed Project: A Digital Library Service Model by Bernard J. Hurley, John Price-Wilkin, Merrilee Proffitt, Howard Besser. December 1999. pub87

Digital Certificate Infrastructure. 1999.

Building Preservation Knowledge in Brazil by Ingrid Beck. November 1999. pub86

Innovative Use of Information Technology by Colleges. August 1999. pub85

Securing Our Dance Heritage: Issues in the Documentation and Preservation of Dance by Catherine J. Johnson and Allegra Fuller Snyder. July 1999. pub84

Supporting Access to Diverse and Distributed Finding Aids by John Price Wilkineport. July 1999.

Preserving the Whole: A Two-Track Approach to Rescuing Social Science Data and Metadata by Ann Green, JoAnn Dionne, and Martin Dennis. June 1999. pub83

Academic Image Cooperative. June 1999.

TEI Text Encoding in Libraries

The Future of the Past: Preservation in American Research Libraries by Abby Smith. April 1999. pub82

Digitization for Scholarly Use: The Boswell Papers Project at The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library by Nicole Bouché. March 1999. pub81

Why Digitize? by Abby Smith. February 1999. pub80

Digital Library Federation Workshop on Social Science Data Archives. Feburary 1999.

Enabling Access in Digital Libraries: A Report on a Workshop on Access Management by Caroline Arms. February 1999. pub79

Scholarship, Instruction, and Libraries at the Turn of the Century. January 1999. pub78

Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation by Jeff Rothenberg. January 1999. pub77

Computerization of the Archivo General de Indias: Strategies and Results by Pedro González. September 1998. pub76

Developing a Standard for Recording Contextual Information for Archival and Manuscript Materials December 1998.

The Mirage of Continuity: Reconfiguring Academic Information Resources for the 21st Century. Edited by Brian L. Hawkins and Patricia Battin. September 1998. pub75

Selecting Research Collections for Digitization by Dan Hazen, Jeffrey Horrell, and Jan Merrill-Oldham. August 1998. pub74

Public Libraries, Communities, and Technology: Twelve Case Studies. November 1996. pub73

Library Systems: Current Developments and Future Directions by Leigh Watson Healy. May 1998. pub72

Digitizing Historical Pictorial Collections for the Internet by Stephen Ostrow. February 1998. pub71

Preservation and Archives in Vietnam by Judith Henchy. February 1998. pub70

Digitization as a Method of Preservation? by Hartmut Weber and Marianne Dörr. October 1997. pub69

SGML as a Framework for Digital Preservation and Access by James Coleman and Don Willis. July 1997. pub68

Digital Image Collections by Michael Ester. December 1996. pub67

Mass Deacidification by Henk Porck. October 1996. pub65

Preservation Challenges in a Changing Political Climate. A Report from Russia by Galina Kislovskaya. September 1996. pub64

Preserving Digital Information, Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information by Donald Waters and John Garrett. May 1996. pub63

Preservation in the Digital World by Paul Conway. March 1996. pub62

Digital Collections Inventory Report by Patricia A. McClung. February 1996. pub61

Preservation Activities in Canada by Karen Turko. February 1996. pub60

New Tools for Preservation by James M. Reilly, Douglas W. Nishimura, and Edward Zinn. November 1995. pub59

Difficult Choices by Gerald W. George. August 1995. pub58

Digital Imaging of Papyri by Roger S. Bagnall. September 1995. pub57

Oversize Color Images Project, 1994-1995 by Janet Gertz. August 1995. pub56

Preservation Priorities in Latin America by Dan C. Hazen. July 1995. pub55

Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling by John Van Bogart. June 1995. pub54

Digital Resolution Requirements for Replacing Text-Based Material: Methods for Benchmarking Image Quality by Anne R. Kenney and Stephen Chapman. April 1995. pub53

The European Register of Microform Masters-Supporting International Cooperation. May 1995. pub52

Preservation Activities in Bulgaria by Sonja Jordan. February 1995. pub51

The International Program and Its Global Mission. Introduction to Report Series. January 1995. pub50

The Commission on Preservation and Access Working Paper on the Future. February 1994. pub48

The Setup Phase of Project Open Book by Paul Conway and Shari Weaver. June 1994. pub47

Isoperms – An Environmental Management Tool by Donald Sebera. June 1994. pub46

Image Formats for Preservation and Access. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee by Michael Lesk. July 1990. pub5

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