APPENDIX A References and Selected Bibliography

Web addresses in this appendix were valid as of January 7, 2002


Chadwick, B.A., H.M. Bahr, and S.L. Albrecht. 1984. Social Science Research Methods. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Dillman, Don A. 1978. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. New York: John Wiley.

Ess, Charles, ed. 2001. Culture, Technology, Communication: Towards an Intercultural Global Village. New York: SUNY Press.

Greenstein, Daniel and Denise Troll. 2000. Usage, Usability and User Support. Report of a discussion group convened at the DLF Forum on 2 April 2000. Version 1.1. Available at:

Kurzweil, Raymond. 2000. “Promise and Peril: Deeply Intertwined Roles of 21st Century Technology,” presentation at the conference “earthware: a good world in 2050 . . . will computers help or hinder?” Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa., October 19, 2000.

Marczak, Mary, and Meg Sewell. [No date.] Using Focus Groups for Evaluation. CYFERNet Evaluation. Available at: http://Ag.Arizona.Edu/fcr/fs/cyfar/focus.htm.

Nielsen, Jakob. 2000. Why You Only Need to Test With 5 Users. Alertbox. (March 19). Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. 1994. Heuristic Evaluation. In Usability Inspection Methods, edited by Jakob Nielsen and Robert L. Mack. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Nielsen, Jakob. [No date.] Ten Usability Heuristics. Available at:

Selected Bibliography

Social Science Research Methods

Bernard, H. Russell. 2000. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Bundy, Mary Lee. 1959. Research Methods in the Social Sciences: A Selected Bibliography Prepared for Students of Library Science. Urbana, Ill.

Caverly, Grant, and Leslie R. Cohen. 1997. Social Science Research Methods: The Basics. Greenfield Park, Quebec: C & C Educational Publications.

Chadwick, B.A., H.M. Bahr, and S.L. Albrecht. 1984. Social Science Research Methods. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Kenny, Richard F., and David R. Krathwohl. 1993. Instructor’s Manual to Accompany Methods of Educational and Social Science Research: An Integrated Approach. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman.

King, G., R.O. Keohane, and S. Verba, S. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Magnani, Robert. Sampling Guide. Social Science Information Gateway. Available at:

Morgan, G., ed. 1983 Beyond Method: Strategies for Social Research. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Social Science Information Gateway SOSIG. Qualitative Methods. Available at: /World-cat/qualmeth.html.

Social Science Information Gateway SOSIG. Quantitative Methods. Available at:

Summerhill, W.R., and C.L. Taylor. 1992. Selecting a Data Collection Technique. Circular PE-21, Program Evaluation and Organizational Development, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida. Available at:

Focus Groups

American Library Association. 1996. Beyond Bean Counting, Focus Groups and Other Client-Centered Methodologies. Audio cassette. Chicago, Ill.: ALA. Distributed by Teach’em.

Chase, Lynne C., and Jaquelina E. Alvarez. 2000. Internet Research: The Role of the Focus Group. Library and Information Science Research 22(4):357-369.

Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. 1996. Focus Group Interviews: A Data Collection Methodology for Decision Making. Library Administration and Management 10:231-239.

Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Debra Wilcox Johnson, and Susan E. Searing. 1997. Online Catalogs From the Users’ Perspective: The Use of Focus Group Interviews. College and Research Libraries 58(5):403-420.

Edmund, Holly, and the American Marketing Association. 1999. The Focus Group Research Handbook. Lincolnwood, Ill.: NTC Business Books.

Glitz, Beryl. 1998. Focus Groups for Libraries and Librarians. New York: Forbes.

Glitz, Beryl. 1997. The Focus Group Technique in Library Research: An Introduction. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 85(4):385-390.

Greenbaum, Thomas L. 1998. The Handbook for Focus Group Research, second ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Krueger, Richard A. 1998. Developing Questions for Focus Groups. Focus Group Kit Series. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Krueger, Richard A. 1998. Moderating Focus Groups. Focus Group Kit Series. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Krueger, Richard A. 1998. Analyzing and Reporting Focus Group Results. Focus Group Kit Series. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Krueger, Richard A. 1994. Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, second ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Krueger, Richard A., and Jean A. King. 1998. Involving Community Members in Focus Groups. Focus Group Kit Series. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Marczak, Mary, and Meg Sewel. No date. Using Focus Groups for Evaluation. CYFERNet Evaluation. Available at: http://Ag.Arizona.Edu/fcr/fs/cyfar/focus.htm.

Morgan, David L. 1998. The Focus Group Guidebook. Focus Group Kit Series. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Morgan, David L. 1998. Planning Focus Groups. Focus Group Kit Series. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Morgan, David L., ed. 1993. Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Morgan, David L. 1988. Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Morrison, Heather G. 1997. Information Literacy Skills: An Exploratory Focus Group Study of Student Perceptions. Research Strategies 15:4-17.

Nasser, David L. 1988. Workshop: How to Run a Focus Group. Public Relations Journal 44(3):33-34.

Steward, D.W., and P.N. Shamdasani. 1990. Focus Groups: Theory and Practice. Applied Social Research Methods Series. Vol. 20. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Templeton, Jane Farley. 1994. The Focus Group: A Strategic Guide to Organizing, Conducting, and Analyzing the Focus Group Interview. Revised edition. Chicago, Ill.: Probus Publishing Co.

Survey Questionnaires

Acquisitions Policy: Who Buys What and Why? 2000. Library Association Record 102(8):432.

Allen, Frank R. 1996. Materials Budgets in the Electronic Age: A Survey of Academic Libraries. College and Research Libraries 57(2):133.

Allen, Mary Beth. 1993. International Students in Academic Libraries: A User Survey. College and Research Libraries 54(4):323-324.

ASA Series: What Is a Survey? Social Science Information Gateway. Available at:

Ashcroft, Linda, and Colin Langdon. 1999. The Case for Electronic Journals. Library Association Record 101(12):706-707.

Atlas, Michel C., and Melissa A. Laning. 1999. Professional Journal Reading: A Survey of Kentucky Academic Librarians. Kentucky Libraries 63(1):16-21.

Bancroft, Audrey F., Vicki F. Croft, and Robert Speth. 1998. A Forward-Looking Library Use Survey: WSU Libraries in the 21st Century. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 24(3):216-224.

Bao, Xue-Ming. 2000. Academic Library Home Pages: Link Location and Database Provision. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 26(3):191-195.

Benaud, Claire-Luise, Sever Michael Bordeianu, and Mary Ellen Hanson. 1999. Cataloging Production Standards in Academic Libraries. Technical Services Quarterly 16(3):43-67.

Brown, Linda A., and John Harper Forsyth. 1999. The Evolving Approval Plan: How Academic Librarians Evaluate Services for Vendor Selection and Performance. Library Collections Acquisitions, and Technology Services 23(3):231-277.

Buttlar, Lois J., and Rajinder Garcia. 1998. Catalogers in Academic Libraries: Their Evolving and Expanding Roles. College & Research Libraries 59(4):311-321.

Button, Leslie Horner. 2000. Impact of Bundled Databases on Serials Acquisitions in Academic Libraries. The Serials Librarian 38(3/4):213-218.

Calvert, Philip J. 1997, Surveying Service Quality Within University Libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 23:408-415.

Coffta, Michael, and David M. Schoen. 2000. Academic Library Web Sites as a Source of Interlibrary Loan Lending Information: A Survey of Four- and Five-year Colleges and Universities. Library Resources & Technical Services 44(4):196-200.

Doyle, Christine. 1995. The Perceptions of Library Service Questionnaire PLSQ: The Development of a Reliable Instrument to Measure Student Perceptions of and Satisfaction with Quality of Service in an Academic Library. New Review of Academic Librarianship 1:139-154.

East, John W. 2001. Academic Libraries and the Provision of Support for Users of Personal Bibliographic Software: A Survey of Australian Experience with Endnote. LASIE 32(1):64-70.

Evans, Geraint, and Jane Del-Pizzo. 1999. “Look, Hear, Upon This Picture”: A Survey of Academic Users of the Sound and Moving Image Collection of the National Library of Wales. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 31(3):152-167.

Hart, Richard L. 2000. Co-authorship in the Academic Library Literature: A Survey of Attitudes and Behaviors. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 26(5):339-345.

Hernon, Peter, and Philip J. Calvert. 1996. Methods for Measuring Service Quality in University Libraries in New Zealand. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 22:387-391.

Herring, Susan Davis. 2001. Using the World Wide Web for Research: Are Faculty Satisfied? The Journal of Academic Librarianship 27(3):213-219.

Hoffman, Irene M., Amy Sherman Smith, and Leslie DeBonae. 2000. Factors for Success: Academic Library Development Survey Results. Library Trends 48(3):540-559.

Ikeuchi, Atsushi. 1998. Dimensions of Academic Library Effectiveness. Library and Information Science 39:1-29.

Janes, Joseph, David S. Carter, and Patricia Memmott. 1999. Digital Reference Services in Academic Libraries. Reference & User Services Quarterly 39(2):145-150.

Johnson, Denise J. 1997. Merging? Converging? A Survey of Research and Report on Academic Library Reorganization and the Recent Rash of Marriages Between Academic Libraries and University Computer Centers. Illinois Libraries 79(2):61.

Julien, Heidi E. 2000. Information Literacy Instruction in Canadian Academic Libraries: Longitudinal Trends and International Comparisons. College & Research Libraries 61(6):510-523.

Kwak, Gail Stern. 2000. Government Information on the Internet: Perspectives from Louisiana’s Academic Depository Libraries. Louisiana Libraries 63(2):17-22.

Libby, Katherine A. 1997. A Survey on the Outsourcing of Cataloging in Academic Libraries. College and Research Libraries 58(6):550.

Love, Christine, and John Feather. 1998. Special Collections on the World Wide Web: A Survey and Evaluation. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 30(4):215-222.

Maughan, Patricia Davitt. 1999. Library Resources and Services: A Cross-Disciplinary Survey of Faculty and Graduate Student Use and Satisfaction. Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(5):354.

Norman, O. Gene. 1997. The Impact of Electronic Information Sources on Collection Development: A Survey of Current Practice. Library Hi Tech 15(1-2):123-132.

Organ, M., and M. Janatti. 1997. Academic Library Seating: A Survey of Usage, with Implications for Space Utilization. Australian Academic and Research Libraries, AARL 28(3):205.

Pavy, Jeanne A. 2000. Special Collections in Regional Academic Libraries: An Informal Survey. Louisiana Libraries 63(2):14-16.

Perkins, Gay Helen, and Haiwang Yuan. 2000. Genesis of a Web-based Satisfaction Survey in an Academic Library: The Western Kentucky University Libraries’ Experience. Library Administration & Management 14(3):159-166.

Porter, Gayle, and Paul Bredderman. 1997. Nonprint Formats: A Survey of the Work and Its Challenges for the Cataloger in ARL Academic Libraries. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly 24(3-4):125.

Rasinski, Kenneth A., David Mingay, and Norman M. Bradburn. 1994. Do Respondents Really “Mark All That Apply” on Self-administered Questions? Public Opinion Quarterly 58(3):400-408.

Ren, Wen-Hua. 2000. Library Instruction and College Student Self-efficacy in Electronic Information Searching. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 26(5):323-328.

Rich, Linda A., and Julie L. Rabine. 1999. How Libraries Are Providing Access to Electronic Serials: A Survey of Academic Library Web Sites. Serials Review 25(2):35-46.

Sanchez, Maria Elena. 1992. Effects of Questionnaire Design on the Quality of Survey Data. Public Opinion Quarterly 56(2):206-217.

Schilling, Katherine, and Charles B. Wessel. 1995. Reference Librarians’ Perceptions and Use of Internet Resources: Results of a Survey of Academic Health Science Libraries. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 83(4):509.

Schneider, Tina M. 2001. The Regional Campus Library and Service to the Public. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 27(2):122-127.

Scigliano, Marisa. 2000. Serial Use in a Small Academic Library: Determining Cost-Effectiveness. Serials Review 26(1):43.

Shemberg, Marian, and Cheryl R. Sturko Grossman. 1999. Electronic Journals in Academic Libraries: A Comparison of ARL and Non-ARL Libraries. Library Hi Tech 17(1):26-45.

Shonrock, Diana D., ed. 1996. Evaluating Library Instruction: Sample Questions, Forms, and Strategies for Practical Use. Chicago, Ill.: American Library Association.

Sinn, Robin N. 1999. A Comparison of Library Instruction Content by Biology Faculty and Librarians. Research Strategies 17(1):23-34.

Talbot, Dawn E., Gerald R. Lowell, and Kerry Martin. 1998. From the User’s PerspectiveThe UCSD Libraries User Survey Project. Journal of Academic Librarianship 24(5):357.

Travica, B. 1997. Organizational Aspects of the Virtual/Digital Library: A Survey of Academic Libraries. Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting 34:149­161. Medford, N.J.: Information Today.

Travica, Bob. 1999. Organizational Aspects of the Virtual Library: A Survey of Academic Libraries. Library & Information Science Research 21(2):173-203.

White, Marilyn Domas. 2001. Diffusion of an Innovation: Digital Reference Service in Carnegie Foundation Master’s Comprehensive Academic Institution Libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 27(3):173-187.

Wu, Huey-meei. 1998. Academic Library User Survey: National Chiao-Tung University Case Study. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences 36(2):171-196.

Transaction Log Analysis

Atlas, Michael C., Karen R. Little, and Michael O. Purcell. 1997. Flip Charts at the OPAC: Using Transaction Log Analysis to Judge Their Effectiveness at Six Libraries of the University of Louisville. Reference and User Services Quarterly 37(1):63-69.

Bangalore, Nirmala S. 1997. Re-Engineering the OPAC Using Transaction Logs at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Libri 47:67-76.

Blecic, Deborah D., Nirmala S. Bangalore, and Josephine L. Dorsch. 1998. Using Transaction Log Analysis to Improve OPAC Retrieval Results. College and Research Libraries 59:39-50.

Ciliberti, Anne C., Marie L. Radford, and Gary P. Radford. 1998. Empty Handed? A Material Availability Study and Transaction Log Analysis Verification. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 24(4):282-289.

Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, John Budd, and Thomas R. Kochtanek. 1995. An Investigation of the Use of an Online Catalog: User Characteristics and Transaction Log Analysis. Library Resources and Technical Services 39:142-152.

Ferl, Terry Ellen, and Larry Millsap. 1996. The Knuckle-Cracker’s Dilemma: A Transaction Log Study of OPAC Subject Searching. Information Technology and Libraries 15:81-98.

Jones, Susan, Mike Gatford, and Thien Do. 1997. Transaction Logging. Journal of Documentation 53:35-50.

Kaske, Neal K. 1993. Research Methodologies and Transaction Log Analysis: Issues, Questions, and a Proposed Model. Library Hi Tech 11(2):79-86.

King, Natalie Schoch. 1993. End-User Errors: A Content Analysis of PaperChase Transaction Logs. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 81:439-441.

Kurth, Martin. 1993. The Limits and Limitations of Transaction Log Analysis. Library Hi Tech 11(2):98-104.

Library Hi Tech. 1993. Special Issue on Transaction Log Analysis 11(2).

Millsap, Larry, and Terry Ellen Ferl. 1993. Search Patterns of Remote Users: An Analysis of OPAC Transaction Logs. Information Technology and Libraries 12:321-343.

Peters, Thomas A. 1996. Using Transaction Log Analysis for Library Management Information. Library Administration and Management 10:20-25.

Peters, Thomas A. 1993. The History and Development of Transaction Log Analysis. Library Hi Tech 11(2):41-66.

Peters, Thomas A., Martin Kurth, Patricia Flaherty, et al. 1993. An Introduction to the Special Section on Transaction Log Analysis. Library Hi Tech 11(2):38-40.

Sandore, Beth. 1993. Applying the Results of Transaction Log Analysis. Library Hi Tech 11(2):87-97.

Sandore, Beth, Patricia Flaherty, Neal K. Kaske, et al. 1993. A Manifesto Regarding the Future of Transaction Log Analysis. Library Hi Tech 11(2):105-106.

Shelfer, Katherine M. 1998. Transaction Log Analysis as a Method to Measure the Frequencies of Searcher Access to Library Research Guides. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press.

Sullenger, Paula. 1997. A Serials Transaction Log Analysis. Serials Review 23(3):21-26.

Wallace, Patricia M. 1993. How Do Patrons Search the Online Catalog When No One’s Looking? Transaction Log Analysis and Implications for Bibliographic Instruction and System Design. RQ 33:239-252.

Wyly, Brendan J. 1996. From Access Points to Materials: A Transaction Log Analysis of Access Point Value for Online Catalog Users. Library Resources and Technical Services 40:211-236.

Usability Testing
Including Protocol Analysis and Heuristic Evaluation

Allen, Bryce L. 1994. Cognitive Abilities and Information System Usability. Information Processing and Management 30:177-191.

Anderson, Theresa. 1999. Searching for Information: Applying Usability Testing Methods to a Study of Information Retrieval and Relevance Assessment. Australian Academic & Research Libraries 30(3):189-199.

Baker, Gayle S., and Flora G. Shrode. 1999. A Heuristic Approach to Selecting Delivery Mechanisms for Electronic Resources in Academic Libraries. Journal of Library Administration 26(3-4):153-167.

Battleson, Brenda, Austin Booth, and Jane Weintrop. 2001. Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site: A Case Study. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 27(3):188-198.

Branch, Jennifer. 2000. Investigating the Information-Seeking Processes of Adolescents: The Value of Using Think Alouds and Think Afters. Library and Information Science Research 22(4):371-392.

Buttenfield, Barbara Pfeil. 1999. Usability Evaluation of Digital Libraries. Science and Technology Libraries 17(3-4):39-59.

Campbell, Nicole. 1999. Discovering the User: A Practical Glance at Usability Testing. The Electronic Library 17(5):307-311.

Chance, Toby. 1993. Ensuring Online Information Usability. The Electronic Library 11:237-239.

Chisman, Janet K., Karen R. Diller, and Sharon L. Walbridge. 1999. Usability Testing: A Case Study. College and Research Libraries 60(6):456-461.

Crerar, A., and D. Benyon. 1998. Integrating Usability into Systems Development. In The Politics of Usability: A Practical Guide to Designing Usable Systems in Industry, edited by Lesley Trenner and Joanna Bawa. London: Springer-Verlag.

Dickstein, Ruth, and Victoria A. Mills. 2000. Usability Testing at the University of Arizona Library: How to Let the Users In On the Design. Information Technology and Libraries 19(3):144-151.

Dillon, Andrew. 2001. Artifacts as Theories: Convergence Through User-Centered Design. Selected Online Publications by Andrew Dillon. Indiana University. Available at:

Duncker, Elke, Yin Leng Theng, and Norlisa Mohd-Nasir. 2000. Cultural Usability in Digital Libraries. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 26(4):21-22.

Dykstra, D.J. 1993. A Comparison of Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing: The Efficacy of a Domain-Specific Heuristic Checklist. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Fichter, Darlene. 2000. Head Start: Usability Testing Up Front. Online 24(1):79-81.

Fichter, Darlene. 2001. Testing the Web Site Usability Waters. Online 25(2):78-80.

Gluck, Myke. 1998. The Application of the Usability Approach in Libraries and Information Centers for Resource Selection and Deployment. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 39(2):90-99.

Gullikson, Shelley, Ruth Blades, and Marc Bragdon. 1999. The Impact of Information Architecture on Academic Web Site Usability. The Electronic Library 17(5):293-304.

Head, Alison J. 1999. Web Redemption and the Promise of Usability. Online 23(6):20-23.

Head, Alison J. 1997. Web Usability and Essential Interface Design Issues. Proceedings of the 18th National Online Meeting, New York, May 13-15, 1997.

Hert, Carol Ann, Elin K. Jacob, and Patric Dawson. 2000. A Usability Assessment of Online Indexing Structures in the Networked Environment. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51(1):971-988.

Hudson, Laura. 2000. Radical Usability or, Why You Need to Stop Redesigning Your Web Site. Library Computing 19(1/2):86-92.

Jeffries, R., et al. 1991. User Interface Evaluation in the Real World: A Comparison of Four Techniques. In Proceedings ACM CHI ’91 Conference, edited by S. P. Robertson, G. M. Olson, and J. S. Olson. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Levi, M.D., and F.G. Conrad. 2000. Usability Testing of World Wide Web Sites. Bureau of Labor Statistics Research Papers. Available at:

McGillis, Louise, and Elaine G. Toms. 2001. Usability of the Academic Library Web Site: Implications for Design. College and Research Libraries 62(4):355-368.

McLean, Stuart, Michael B. Spring, and Edie M. Rasmussen. 1995. Online Image Databases: Usability and Performance. The Electronic Library 13:27-42.

Molich, R., and J. Nielsen. 1990. Improving a Human-Computer Dialogue. Communications of the ACM 33(3):338-348.

Morgan, Eric Lease. 1999. Marketing Through Usability. Computers in Libraries 19(80):52-53.

Morrison, Heather G. 1999. Online Catalogue Research and the Verbal Protocol Method. Concordia University Students Conduct Research on DRA’s Infogate. Library Hi Tech 17(2):197-206.

Nielsen, Jakob. 2001. Are Users Stupid? Alertbox (Feb. 4). Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. 1998. Cost of User Testing a Website. Alertbox (May 3). Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. 2000. Designing Web Usability. Indianapolis, Ind.: New Riders Press.

Nielsen, Jakob. 1994. Enhancing the Explanatory Power of Usability Heuristics. In CHI ’94 Conference Proceedings, edited by B. Adelson, S. Dumais, and J. Olson. New York: Association of Computing Machinery.

Nielsen, Jakob. 1992. Finding Usability Problems Through Heuristic Evaluation. In Proceedings ACM CHI’92 Conference, edited by P. Bauersfeld, J. Bennett, and G. Lynch. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Nielsen, Jakob. 2001. First Rule of Usability? Don’t Listen to Users. Alertbox (Aug. 5). Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. [No date.] Heuristic Evaluation. Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. 1990. Paper versus Computer Implementations as Mockup Scenarios for Heuristic Evaluation. Proceedings of IFIP IINTERACT 90, Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, edited by D. Diaper et al. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Nielsen, Jakob. 2001. Success Rate: The Simplest Usability Metric. Alertbox (Feb. 18). Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. [No date.] Ten Usability Heuristics. Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. 1993. Usability Engineering. Boston, Mass.: Academic Press.

Nielsen, Jakob. 2001. Usability Metrics. Alertbox. (Jan. 21). Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob. 2000. Why You Only Need to Test With 5 Users. Alertbox (March 19). Available at:

Nielsen, Jakob, T.K. Landauer. 1993. A Mathematical Model of the Finding of Usability Problems. Proceedings ACM/IFIP INTERCHI’93 Conference, edited by S. Ashlund et al. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Nielsen, Jakob, Robert L. Mack, and Arthur G. Elser. 1995. Usability Inspection Methods. Technical Communication 42(4):661.

Nielsen, Jakob, and Robert L.Mack, eds. 1994. Usability Inspection Methods. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Nielsen, Jakob, and R. Molich. 1990. Heuristic Evaluation of User Interfaces. In Proceedings ACM CHI’90 Conference, edited by J. Carrasco Chew, and J. Whiteside. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Olason, Susan C. 2000. Let’s Get Usable! Usability Studies for Indexes. The Indexer 22(2):91-95.

Pack, Thomas. 2001. Use It or Lose It: Jakob Nielsen Champions Content Usability. Econtent 24(4):44-46.

Palmquist, Ruth Ann. 2001 An Overview of Usability for the Study of User’s Web-Based Information Retrieval Behavior. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 42(2):123-136.

Park, Soyeon. 2000. Usability, User Preferences, Effectiveness, and User Behaviors When Searching Individual and Integrated Full-Text Databases: Implications for Digital Libraries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51(5):456-468.

Prasse, M. J. and R. Tigner. 1992. The OCLC Usability Lab: Description and Methodology. In 13th National Online Meeting Proceedings1992, New York, May 5-7, 1992, edited by Martha E. Williams. Medford, N.J.: Learned Information, Inc.

Rousseau, G.K. 1999. Assessing the Usability of On-line Library Systems. Communication Abstracts 22(2):536.

Rubin, Jeffrey. 1994. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Sakaguchi, Kazuko. 1999. Journal Assessment: A Protocol Analysis for Establishing Criteria for Shared Responsibilities for the Japanese Vernacular Journal Collection. Journal of East Asian Libraries, 118:1-20.

Veldof, Jerilyn R., Michael J. Prasse, and Victoria A. Mills. 1999. Chauffeured by the User: Usability in the Electronic Library. Journal of Library Administration 26(3-4):115-140.

Walbridge, Sharon L. 2000. Usability Testing and Libraries: The WSU Experience. [Washington State University]. Alki 16(3):23-24.

Wiedenbeck, Susan, Robin Lampert, and Jean Scholtz. 1989. Using Protocol Analysis to Study the User Interface. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 15:25-26.

Zhang, Zhijun, Victor Basili, and Ben Schneiderman. 1999. Perspective-Based Usability Inspection: An Empirical Validation of Efficacy. Empirical Software Engineering 4(1):43-69.