The references that follow are intended to give readers more detailed information on special considerations in library design. We include references to specific libraries so that readers may draw on additional examples of recent work.

Special thanks to Joan Lippincott, of the Coalition for Networked Information, for suggesting sources on technology-enabled learning, and to Scott Bennett, from whose extensive literature review on library planning1 we selected several titles under General Planning. Please note that these lists are suggestive rather than exhaustive.

General Planning

Brand, Steward. 1994. How Buildings Learn: What Happens after They’re Built. New York: Viking.

Dowler, L. ed. 1997. Gateways to Knowledge: The Role of Academic Libraries in Teaching, Learning, and Research. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Hurt, Charlene. 2000. The Johnson Center Library at George Mason University. In T. D. Webb, ed., Building Libraries for the 21st Century: The Shape of Information. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.

Leighton, Philip D., and David C. Weber. 1999. Planning Academic and Research Library Buildings, third ed. Chicago: American Library Association.

Marshall, John Douglas. 2004. Place of Learning, Place of Dreams: A History of the Seattle Public Library. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

National Library of Medicine and Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. 2004. The Library as Place: Symposium on Building and Revitalizing Health Sciences Libraries in the Digital Age, November 5–6, 2003. DVD-ROM. Bethesda, Md.: National Library of Medicine.

Ober, John. 2000. Library Services at California State University Monterey Bay. In T. D. Webb, ed. Building Libraries for the 21st Century: The Shape of Information. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.

Stoffle, Carla J., and Karen Williams. 1995. The Instructional Program and Responsibilities of the Teaching Library. New Directions for Higher Education 90: 63–75.

Sutton, Lynn Sorensen. 2000. Imagining Learning Spaces at Wayne State University’s New David Adamany Undergraduate Library. Research Strategies 17: 139–146.

Welch Medical Library Architectural Study. Available at

Shared/Offsite Print Repositories

Bridegam, Willis E. 2001. A Collaborative Approach to Collection Storage: The Five-College Library Depository. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources. Available at

Kohl, David. 2003. Paper and Digital Repositories in the United States. LIBER Quarterly 13: 241–253. Available at

Reilly, Bernard F., Jr., with research and analysis by Barbara DesRosiers. 2003. Developing Print Repositories: Models for Shared Preservation and Access. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources. Available at

Luther, Judy, Linda Bills, Amy McColl, Norm Medeiros, Amy Morrison, Eric Pumroy, and Peggy Seiden. 2003. Library Buildings and the Building of a Collaborative Research Collection at the Tri-College Library Consortium. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources. Available at

Technology and IT-Library Collaboration

Beagle, Donald. 1999. Conceptualizing an Information Commons. Includes commentaries by Martin Halbert and Philip J. Tramdack. Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(2): 82-93.

Cowgill, Allison, Joan Beam, and Lindsey Wess. 2001. Implementing an Information Commons in a University Library. Journal of Academic Librarianship 27(6): 432–439.

Crockett, Charlotte, Sarah McDaniel, and Melanie Remy. 2002. Integrating Services in the Information Commons. Library Administration & Management 16(4): 181–186.

Designing the Space: A Conversation with Willliam J. Mitchell. 2003. Syllabus 17(2): 10–13, 41. Available at

Dewey, Barbara I. 2002. University of Tennessee’s Collaborative Digital Media Spaces. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Activities 222 (June): 4–5. Available at

Duncan, J. 1998. The Information Commons: A Model for ‘Physical’ Digital Resource Centers. Bulletin of the MLA 86(4): 576–582.

Haas, Leslie, and Jan Robertson. 2004. The Information Commons. SPEC Kit 281. Washington, D.C.: Association of Research Libraries.

Holmes-Wong, Deborah, Marianne Afifi, Shahla Bahvar, and Xioyang Liu. 1997. If You Build It, They Will Come: Spaces, Values and Services in the Digital Era. Library Administration and Management 9(2): 74–85.

Lippincott, Joan K. 2002. Developing Collaborative Relationships: Librarians, Students, and Faculty Creating Learning Communities. C & RL News 63(3).

Lippincott, Joan K. 2005 forthcoming. New Library Facilities: Opportunities for Collaboration. Resource Sharing and Information Networks 17(1-2).

Lippincott, Joan. K. 2005 forthcoming. Net Generation Students and Libraries. In Diana Oblinger and Jim Oblinger, eds., Educating the Net Generation. Boulder, Colo.: EDUCAUSE.

National Learning Infrastructure Initiative. 2004. Leading the Transition from Classrooms to Learning Spaces. An NLII White Paper. Proceedings of 2004 Fall Focus Session, Learning Space Designed for the 21st Century, Sept. 9–10, 2004, Cambridge, Mass. Available at

McCloskey, Paul. 2003. Designing New Learning Environments: Students Share Control in Classrooms of the Future. Syllabus 17(3): 28–30.

McKinstry, Jill, and Peter McCracken. 2002. Combining Computing and Reference Desks in an Undergraduate Library: A Brilliant Innovation or a Serious Mistake? Portal: Libraries and the Academy 2(3): 391–400.

Monahan, Torin. 2002. Flexible Space and Built Pedagogy: Emerging IT Embodiments. Inventio 4(1): 1–19. Available at

Schoomer, Elia. 2000. Electronic Classrooms and Buildings of the Future. Current Issues Roundtable. EDUCAUSE 2000, Nashville, Tennessee, October 10–13, 2000. Available at

Simons, Kevin, James Young, and Craig Gibson. 2000. The Learning Library in Context: Community, Integration, and Influence. Research Strategies 17(2-3): 123–132.

Stewart, M. Claire, and H. Frank Cervone. 2003. Building a New Infrastructure for Digital Media: Northwestern University Library. Information Technology and Libraries 22(2): 69–74.

TLT Group. Teaching/Learning Activities and Learning Spaces that Make them Easier. Available at

Valenti, Mark S. 2002. Creating the Classroom of the Future. EDUCAUSE Review (Sept/Oct): 52–62. Available at

Wilson, Lizabeth A. 2002. Collaborate or Die: Designing Library Space. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Activities 222 (June): 1–2. Available at

Selected Web Sites

Collaborative Facilities:
A Joint Project of the Coalition for Networked Information and Dartmouth College, as of June 2004 this site features key planning and supporting documents from the following institutions: Dartmouth College, Dickinson College, Northwestern University, Oregon State University, University of Arizona, University of Oregon, University of Southern Illinois-Carbondale, and University of Tennessee.

Denison University Learning Spaces Project:

Emory University InfoCommons:

Georgia Institute of Technology Library and Information Center:

Indiana University Information Commons:

Marquette Center for Teaching and Learning:

Ohio University Learning Commons:

Stanford University Wallenberg Hall:

University of Arizona Integrated Learning Center:

University of Calgary Information Commons:

University of Chicago Crerar Computing Cluser & CyberCafe:

University of Georgia Student Learning Center:

University of Iowa Information Arcade:

University of Southern California Leavey Library Information Commons:

University of Toronto Scotiabank Information Commons:

University of Washington University Libraries Media Center:

Vassar College Media Cloisters:

Wellesley College Knapp Media and Technology Center:


1 See