Close this search box.
Close this search box.


Bearman, D. 1993. “The Implications of Armstrong v. Executive Office of the President for the Archival Management of Electronic Records.” American Archivist 56: 150–60.

Bearman, D. (ed.). 1991. Hypermedia and Interactivity in Museums: Proceedings of an International Conference. Pittsburgh.

Bearman, D. 1992. “Documenting Documentation.” Archivaria 34 (Summer).

Bikson, T. K. Forthcoming. “Managing Digital Documents: Technology Challenges and Institutional Responses.” In Proceedings of the Internal Conference of the Round Table on Archives. Stockholm, Sweden: International Council on Archives (September 1998).

—. 1997. Strategies for Implementing Document Management Technology. ACC/1997/ISCC/4. Geneva: United Nations Information Systems Coordination Committee (ISCC), Annex II.

—. 1994. “Organizational Trends and Electronic Media.” American Archivist 57(1): 48–68. (Also available from RAND as Reprint RP-307.)

Bikson, T. K., and E. J. Frinking. 1993. “Preserving the Present: Toward Viable Electronic Records.” Den Haag: Sdu Publishers. (Parts of this book are available as RAND Reprint RP-257.)

Bikson, T. K., and S. A. Law. 1993. “Electronic Information Media and Records Management Methods: A Survey of Practices in United Nations Organizations.” Information Society 9(2): 125–44. (Also available from RAND as Reprint RP-508.)

Codd, E. F. 1982. “Relational Database: A Practical Foundation for Productivity.” CACM 25(2): 109–17.

Coleman, J., and Don Willis. 1997. SGML as a Framework for Digital Preservation and Access. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access.

Cox, Richard J. 1994. “Re-Discovering the Archival Mission: The Recordkeeping Functional Requirements Project at the University of Pittsburgh, A Progress Report.” Archives and Museum Informatics 8(4): 279–300.

—. 1996. “The Record in the Information Age: A Progress Report on Reflection and Research.” Records & Retrieval Report 12(1): 1–16.

Day, Michael. 1997. “Extending Metadata for Digital Preservation.” Ariadne. Available from (May).

Dollar, C. M. 1992. Archival Theory and Information Technologies: The Impact of Information Technologies on Archival Principles and Practices, Information and Documentation. Series 1, edited by Oddo Bucci. Macerata, Italy: University of Macerata.

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. 1998. “The Dublin Core: A Simple Content Description Model for Electronic Resources.” Sponsors: Online Computer Library Center, The Library of Congress, Coalition for Networked Information, National Science Foundation, National Libraries of Australia and Finland, National Computational Science Alliance, Distributed Systems Technology Centre (Australia), and UK Office for Library and Information Networking. Available from

Erlandsson, Alf. 1994. “The Principle of Provenance and the Concept of Records Creator and Record: Legal Development.” In The Principle of Provenance, pp. 33–49. Stockholm: Swedish National Archives.

—. 1996. Electronic Records Management: A Literature Review. International Council on Archives’ (ICA) Study. Available from ISBN 0-9682361-2-X.

Fonseca, F., P. Polles, and M. Almeida. 1996. Analysis of Electronic Files of Bank Reports. Washington. D.C.: World Bank, Business Unit Document Services.

Fox, E. A., and G. Marchionini (guest eds.). 1998. “Toward a World Wide Digital Library.” CACM 41(4): 28–98.

Getty Conservation Institute, Getty Information Institute, Long Now Foundation. 1998. “Time & Bits: Managing Digital Continuity.” Available from

Giguere, M. 1996. “Metadata Attribute Recommendations.” In Human Resources Information System-RFP. Philadelphia, Pa.: City of Philadelphia. Available from

Hedstrom, Margaret. 1991. “Understanding Electronic Incunabula: A Framework for Research on Electronic Records.” American Archivist 54(3): 334–54.

—. 1993. “Electronic Records Program Strategies: An Assessment.” In Electronic Records Management Program Strategies, edited by Margaret Hedstrom. Archives and Museum Informatics. Pittsburgh, Pa.

Horsman, Peter. 1994. “Taming the Elephant: An Orthodox Approach to the Principle of Provenance.” In The Principle of Provenance, pp. 51–63. Stockholm: Swedish National Archives.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 1997. Proceedings of the Second IEEE Metadata Conference. Silver Spring, Md., September 16–17.

Indiana University Electronic Records Project. 1997. “A Methodology for Evaluating Recordkeeping Systems.” Draft (March).

Kenney, Anne R. 1997. Digital to Microfilm Conversion: A Demonstration Project 1994–96. Final report to the National Endowment for the Humanities. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Library. Available from

Lancaster, F. W. 1986. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval. Arlington, Va.: Information Resources Press.

Lesk, Michael. 1995. “Preserving Digital Objects: Recurrent Needs and Challenges.” Available from

—. 1992. Preservation of New Technology: A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee to the Commission on Preservation and Access. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access.

Manes, S. 1998. “Time and Technology Threaten Digital Archives.” New York Times, April 7, Science Times section, p. F-4.

Michelson, A., and Jeff Rothenberg. 1992. “Scholarly Communication and Information Technology: Exploring the Impact of Changes in the Research Process on Archives.” American Archivist 55(2).

Morelli, Jeffrey D. 1998. “Defining Electronic Records: Problems of Terminology.” In History and Electronic Artefacts, edited by Edward Higgs, pp. 169–83. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Morris, R. J. 1998. “Electronic Documents and the History of the Late Twentieth Century: Black Holes or Warehouses.” In History and Electronic Artefacts, edited by Edward Higgs, pp. 31–38. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). 1991. Management, Preservation and Access for Electronic Records with Enduring Value. Washington, D. C.: NARA. July 1.

National Research Council. 1995. Preserving Scientific Data on our Physical Universe: A New Strategy for Archiving the Nation’s Scientific Information Resources. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Popkin, J., and A. Cushman. 1993. Integrated Document Management-Controlling a Rising Tide. Stamford, Conn.: Gartner Group.

Roberts, D. 1994. “Defining Electronic Records. Documents and Data.” Archives and Manuscripts 22(2): 14–26.

Rothenberg, Jeff. 1997. “Digital Information Lasts Forever-Or Five Years, Whichever Comes First.” RAND Video V-079.

—. 1996. “Metadata to Support Data Quality and Longevity.” First IEEE Metadata Conference, April 16–18. Silver Spring, Md. Available from

—. 1995a. “Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Documents.” Scientific American 272(1): 24–29.

—. 1995b. “Survival of the Digits.” Communicating Business, Issue 4 (Spring). London: Forward Publishing.

Sanders, Terry. 1997. Into the Future. Video/film (60-minute version shown on PBS; 30-minute version also available). American Film Foundation, 1333 Ocean Ave., Santa Monica, Calif. 90406.

Schurer, Kevin. 1998. “The Implications of Information Technology for the Future Study of History.” In History and Electronic Artefacts, edited by Edward Higgs, pp. 155–58. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Smith, Abby. 1998. “Preservation in the Future Tense.” CLIR Issues 3 (May/June). Washington, D.C.: Council on Library & Information Resources.

Swade, Doron. 1998. “Preserving Software in an Object-Centred Culture.” In History and Electronic Artefacts, edited by Edward Higgs, pp. 195–206. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Thibodeau, Kenneth. 1991. “To Be Or Not to Be: Archives for Electronic Records.” In Archival Management of Electronic Records, edited by David Bearman. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Archives and Museum Informatics.

United Nations Advisory Committee for the Coordination of Information Systems (ACCIS). 1990. Management of Electronic Records: Issues and Guidelines. New York: United Nations.

—. 1992. Strategic Issues for Electronic Records Management: Toward Open System Interconnection. New York: United Nations.

United States Congress. 1990. House Committee on Government Operations. Taking a Byte out of History: The Archival Presentation of Federal Computer Records. House Report 101–987. Washington, D.C.

United States District Court for the District of Columbia. 1993. Opinion of Charles R. Richey, U.S. District Judge, January 6.

Van Bogart, John W. C. 1996. “Long-Term Preservation of Digital Materials.” Paper presented at the National Preservation Office Conference on Preservation and Digitisation: Principles, Practice and Policies. University of York, England, September 3–5.

Waters, Donald, and John Garret. 1996. Preserving Digital Information. Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information. Commissioned by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Research Libraries Group, Inc. (May 1).


Skip to content