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The Data–Digital Collections Inventory

By Patricia A. McClung
February 1996


This report, the first to be commissioned jointly by the Commission on Preservation and Access and Council on Library Resources, informs and supports our digital library programs. Digital technology is central to both agendas, and the new affiliation between the Commission and Council enables such collaboration to investigate areas of common interest.

Each time librarians, or scholars, or technology experts meet–separately or together to discuss digital projects, someone invariably raises the question, “Are there any sorts of inventories of scanning projects?” There are,it seems, several incomplete lists or promises to start such lists, but no one could point to one authoritative source.

We concluded that a snapshot of scanning projects at a particular point in time might serve as a beginning for a more comprehensive, authoritative inventory to be maintained indefinitely into the future. To that end, we engaged a reliable and careful researcher to do as much as possible to collect information within a short time-frame and to provide a brief analysis of some of the questions and needs related to the development of an inventory tool. In discussions sparked by this report, we hope to determine ways to build on this snapshot to create an inventory that librarians, archivists, and scholars will turn to with confidence when seeking information about digital collections.

This report is shared as a way of stimulating discussion and soliciting further input on the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of an online digital collections inventory. The Commission and Council welcome commends (in either paper or digital form) to Communication Program Officer Maxine Sitts,, fax (202) 939-3499.

Deanna B. Marcum, President


The digital age creates new delivery and access alternatives for libraries, as well as new preservation challenges. In turn the expectations of library users are changing. As people discover information resources online at their computer workstations, they also want access to the contents of libraries in that same online environment.

Digital conversion projects help provide the content for an online digital library; in some cases, projects conducted according to sound preservation guidelines also serve to reformat deteriorating paper-based resources. The Council on Library Resources and the Commission on Preservation and Access undertook this project to learn more about the types of digital conversion efforts underway (or completed) in libraries and archives. The idea was to take a first cut at sketching the nature and extent of efforts to make traditional, retrospective collections available in digital form, rather than to produce a comprehensive inventory.

While there is much talk of virtual libraries, it is not easy to discern how much progress is really being made from exploratory projects to new modes of access. Furthermore, creating online collections involves more than conversion of resources from paper or film to digital format. For example, it is helpful to know what subjects and media have been converted in order to focus on complementary materials or fill in major gaps in the digital canon. Quality issues that affect the preservation of and long-term access to digitized resources, as well as efficacy of their use, also can be best addressed when institutions share information and project results.

This preliminary investigation, and its appendices, exemplify the paradoxical nature of the transition to a digital world. The findings argue strongly that the online tools now at our disposal–particularly the World Wide Web – can do a much better job than this printed report of providing information and multi-dimensional access to these kinds of resources. This report is intended to move us closer to that goal.

Patricia A. McClung


by Patricia McClung
Digital Collaboration Associates
August 1995
(Updated, December 1995)


The explosion in popularity of the Internet underscores the tremendous potential that now exists for rapid, networked sharing of information across the country and around the world. While tools such as World Wide Web and Netscape make the Internet readily accessible even to novice computer users, a major impediment to such a global network of linked information resources is the fact that most documents are not yet available in electronic form.

Cultural institutions and universities–as major collectors, organizers, preservers, and disseminators of information–represent one of the best sources of “content” for this emerging global information network. Increasingly, they are committing resources to making information contained in their collections as widely available as possible, capitalizing on the evolving electronic information infrastructure. To do this, they will undertake massive projects to convert portions of their retrospective collections, which exist in a variety of formats.

There has recently been a burst of activity, much of it experimental in nature, towards this end. However, several very large electronic conversion projects (and related initiatives) intended to test and shape the new information infrastructure are also getting underway. All of them presuppose an information system that has either the Internet, or a more robust successor, at its core. If successful, they will go a long way towards real implementation of the digital revolution that has been predicted for so long.

CPA/CLR Inventory

In July 1995 the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources undertook a joint project to determine how much digitizing of library collections was planned, underway, or completed. The object of the survey was to show which collections/subjects were available for on line use, as well as to highlight where there was little or no conversion activity. In addition, the project was intended to gather sufficient data to ascertain whether an on line index or guide to digital conversion projects would be either useful or practical.

Because the time frame for the study was quite limited, it was impossible to be comprehensive. But time was not the only restriction. Given the rate at which projects are announced, launched (and sometimes tabled), a complete study would be seriously out of date before it left the desktop printer. In fact, a significant percentage of the projects cited in previous studies have yet to materialize.1 Similarly, some that were successfully launched and held great promise (like the JANUS project at the Columbia University Law Libraries) were unsuccessful due to technical or financial problems. In addition, many of the digital collections that do exist are not widely available (via the Internet), either because of local technical limitations or copyright issues.

As for the survey’s methodology, it evolved as the exercise took shape along the way. It started with a brief questionnaire which was circulated via several listservs, as well as to a number of individuals who were known to be involved in various digital conversion activities. The questions were brief and to the point:

  • Which of your [library or archive] collections have been scanned [or digitized]?
  • Did the project include the entire collection, or simply a portion of it? (If a portion, how much?)
  • Under what subject would you classify each of the scanned collections (or, perhaps more appropriately: can you categorize each of the scanned collections by subject)?

The questionnaire yielded approximately 40 responses.

The questionnaire was a useful instrument, but as it turned out, the most productive data gathering resulted from following leads from one knowledgeable person to another, interspersed with World Wide Web expeditions on the Internet. As is frequently the case with most investigations in and of cyberspace, serendipity played a major role.

The Data

As expected, the investigations turned up a hodgepodge of responses. There are innumerable projects which feature pictorial images (e.g. photograph collections, maps, drawings of some sort, or museum collections); there are documentary text editing projects for individual personal papers; there are literary and historical text encoding projects (which for the most part feature SGML encoding); there are efforts to convert entire collections or to provide a critical mass of materials in a particular subject area; and there are a wide variety of experimental projects of one flavor or another. In addition to projects which convert print-based and/or photographic materials, there are a host of mixed-media projects, as well as projects focused on additional formats such as sound recordings, films, microfilm, motion picture film, etc. There are also a number of initiatives to make materials whose original format is electronic widely available via the Internet.

Many of these projects are clearly experimental in nature; experimentation is essential in these early stages of the development of an electronic information environment. A number of other projects seem to be undertaken because of a widespread feeling that it is important to have digital projects underway in order to be current with the trends; but even these help to increase the knowledge base in the library and academic community–something which is also extremely important to the transition. Taken altogether the inventory highlights clusters of initiatives and indicates that a critical mass of on line resources is evolving–although not yet with any apparent coherence or logic.

In the course of the survey, it was pointed out more than once that a clearer definition of what was meant by ‘scanned collections’ was needed to help the potential respondents understand what the inventory would and would not include. While the focus of the investigation was to compile an inventory of retrospective library and archive collections that have been (or will soon be) converted to electronic form for networked distribution, the actual situation in cyberspace is that there are no clear demarcations or obvious definitions for distinguishing types of electronic resources and tools. In fact, there are many different perceptions and working definitions of what actually constitutes a scanning, a digitization, and/or an electronic conversion project. If the survey is an accurate indicator, most people use these terms somewhat interchangeably to refer to a variety of initiatives that ultimately result in electronic availability of retrospective materials converted from other formats. The reason is that although the term ‘scanning’ usually refers to the capture of digital page images (also referred to as bitmapped or raster images), this form of digital capture is sometimes followed by optical character recognition (OCR) conversion to fully searchable text–which then might be encoded using SGML, HTML or some other markup language.

In fact, there are very few “scanning-only” projects, other than for pictorial types of images. Furthermore, it is obvious from this survey that no two projects are exactly alike. Technical decisions are governed by many factors: the available hardware, software, and expertise; the nature and formats of the materials themselves; the anticipated use; and the budget. That said, the conversion projects usually fall into one of these general technical categories:

  • Digital image projects that take an “electronic photograph” of pages, graphics, prints, photographic materials, maps, or whatever (with accompanying metadata for describing, structuring, and indexing the image database).2
  • Digital imaging projects with additional text-searchable files generated from the images (these can be uncorrected text files used for indexing purposes).
  • Full-text conversion projects involving either keyboard entry or Optical Scanning Recognition (OCR);3
  • Text encoding projects using SGML or HTML, or some other mark up language.4

This survey report focuses primarily on the first two categories, both of which involve the “electronic photograph” capture method–often referred to as scanning. This method is used most often in the retrospective conversion of traditional source material, because it “can accurately render the information, layout, and presentation of original source documents.” The third and fourth categories produce electronic text–that is, data that can be manipulated for searching and indexing purposes.5

While there is still considerable discussion in the field about which of these four options is appropriate–and when, the users of these electronic documents are beginning to speak up. They want to download and manipulate the text and images–not just look at a book page on a computer screen. Some projects are providing both a digital image and an electronic version of textual materials. However, the economic factors rear their ugly heads at this point, because fully searchable texts are far more expensive and time consuming to produce than bitmapped page image scans.6

Finding out about Digitized Collections

In the course of this survey, its author encountered some very interesting Internet navigation aids and resources that relate to the second reason for this inventory: to assess the usefulness and/or practicality of developing some type of tool or database that includes information on the wide assortment of electronic conversion initiatives. Clearly, there is not yet a straightforward, logical mechanism for finding out what collections are available in electronic form (and where and how).7 Further, there is very little ability to filter or assess the resources that are there–and they range from the ridiculous to the sublime. However, there are some promising models, as well as some effective Web-linked resources that could inform a decision about the usefulness or the essential characteristics of a database of scanning projects. Further study of these tools may be warranted.

Following the inventory list of digital conversion projects, this report includes brief descriptions of some promising “infrastructure” projects. Although they are not conversion projects per se, they are very closely related, in that they address some of the practical, technical, legal, economic and philosophical problems that currently impede efficient storing, retrieving, transmitting, and true sharing of the types of electronic resources the inventory describes. The report concludes with a “list of lists” which refers to other valuable sources of information that supplement the citations in this report.


This inventory is a work-in-progress. In its present iteration, it represents a cross section of the types of digital conversion projects planned, underway, or completed. Due to time limitations, it does not include journal projects or online exhibitions. For the most part, text-encoding initiatives, videodisk projects, CD- ROM publications, and documentary editing projects were considered out of scope. Except for documentary editing projects, these sources are well indexed in other on line tools, some of which are mentioned in the final section of this report, entitled “List of Lists.”8

The results of the survey were difficult to organize in a logical framework for a printed publication. Although some group naturally together, most are distinct enough to defy easy categorization. The sheer number of projects; the wide variety in focus, subject matter, and formats; as well as the fact that the pertinent information is changing constantly, all argue for a managed, online finding tool of some sort.

In the future, if this inventory expands and evolves into an on line tool, it should include features that were beyond the scope of this project–especially information about access to and availability of the materials, as well as any copyright restrictions. Ideally the tool should link directly to the referenced project Web page or the materials themselves, as well as to other subject or format based tools which index (or link to) related materials. Input from other experts on a useful structure and content definition, as well as more (verified) meat on the inventory’s ‘bones,’ are needed if it is to become a useful information source–either a database or a Web site.

It is clear from this survey that momentum is building, and that in certain subject areas a “critical mass” of on line resources is beginning to accumulate. At the international level there are promising indications of large scale projects in Europe and elsewhere that will make other national literature and political documents much more accessible. At home, the Library of Congress’s National Digital Library Project–in combination with the goals of the complementary National Digital Library Federation–hold great promise as well. Undoubtedly, it is time for such major initiatives to build on the smaller grass roots experimentation that has already occurred. Taken together, these initiatives have the potential to dramatically increase and improve access to information, and perhaps even, preserve it over time.

Preliminary Results of the CPA/CLR Digital Collections Inventory

conducted by
Patricia A. McClung
August 1995
(Updated, December 1995)

For discussion purposes, and in an attempt to find coherence in what is still a very chaotic and fluid information environment, the survey results are grouped as follows:

I. Very large projects featuring national literature, history, and/or politics
II. Examples of broad subject areas with significant activity
(e.g. law; literature, history, and culture; and science and technology)
III. Examples of special, archival, and manuscript collections
IV. Infrastructure projects and “List of Lists”

Admittedly, these categories are arbitrary. Several other groupings could have been made (and, in fact, were before settling on these). The important thing was to find a logical framework, arbitrary or not, to give a sense of the types and scale of activities that are increasingly available to scholars at all levels and in all fields.

In general, the focus is on the conversion of library collections. Occasionally, commercial projects are mentioned when their content features existing library collections. CD-ROM publications and videodisk projects were not included. Examples of other types of initiatives–e.g. electronic text and image database projects–are mentioned in a few instances, in order to highlight the range of activity underway. Projects are listed only once, even if they might logically fit under several headings.

The report concludes with a section that describes several significant projects aimed at defining and improving the existing infrastructure for on line access to information. It also mentions some noteworthy Websites that lead to digital collections online. The are intended to be illustrative of the hundreds of similar sources increasingly available on the Internet.

I. Very Large Projects Featuring National Literature, History, and/or Politics

National Digital Library Project (The Library of Congress)

This is initially a five year project to make historical collections from the Library of Congress (and other major research libraries) available to a much broader audience, taking full advantage of the Internet capabilities and an increasingly “wired” general public. At its core, the Library’s contribution to the national digital library will consist of hundreds of Americana collections, mostly primary source materials about the founding of the United States, including photographs, sound recordings, printed materials, and motion pictures. At the end of the first five year period (1995-2000), 1 million items from the Library will be available online. The plan is that these materials will be complemented by 4 million items from other major research libraries around the country.

Contact: Laura Campbell, National Digital Library Office, Library of Congress, 202/707-3961.

Bibliotheque Nationale de France Mass Digitization Project

This major project is converting classical French language texts (philosophy, literature, science, history, social sciences, economics, legal and political history, anthropology and linguistics). The goal is to capture 100,000 texts by 1996, and 300,000 by the year 2000. Most of the conversion is in bitmapped format, with 10% in retrievable, fully searchable texts drawn from the “Frantext” and “Tresor de la Langue Francaise” projects.

Contact: Marcelle Beaudiquez, Dir. du Developpement Scientifique/BN; fax: 3311147.03.81.50

ARTFL: A Textual Database of French Literature, Philosophy, Arts, Sciences, 15th-20th Centuries

The ARTFL Database is one of the most ambitious and successful electronic text projects. In 1981 a cooperative project by the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique and the University of Chicago was launched: American and French Research on the Treasury of the French Language (ARTFL). At present the database “consists of nearly 2000 texts, ranging from classic works of French literature to various kinds of non-fiction prose and technical writing. The eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries are equally represented, with a smaller selection of seventeenth-century texts, as well as some medieval and Renaissance texts.” Access to the database is offered through the PhiloLogic full-text retrieval system (to scholars and students of institutions affiliated with the ARTFL consortium).

Contact: 312/702-8488

Australian Cooperative Digitisation Project (1840-45)

This project focuses on 19th-century Australian literature, serials and fiction. It is producing digital scans, supplemented with fully searchable texts for fiction. It will include all Australian serials that commenced in the period 1840-45 (through to 1855), and all fiction published 1840-45. Participating institutions are: State Library of New South Wales, Natl. Library of Australia, University of Sydney Library, and Monash University Library.

Contact: Ross Coleman, Collection Management Lib., Univ. of Sydney Library; phone: 61/2/351.3352; fax: 61/2/692.8325

Making of America (Cornell University and the University of Michigan)

A major digital library project, Making of America intends to preserve and make available in electronic form a significant corpus of primary source material on the history of the United States. During the first phase, Cornell University will collaborate with the University of Michigan; additional partners may join the project in later phases. Initially, 10,000 monographs documenting the period from 1850-1877 will be selected, scanned, and made available online beyond traditional institutional boundaries. A principle reason for a project of this scale is to provide sufficient texts and resources in a coherent subject area to enable substantive evaluation of the potential impact that widely available, networked digital collections can have on research and teaching.

Contact: Anne R. Kenney, Cornell University;; 607/255-6875

Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain

Inspired by the 400th anniversary of Columbus’ discovery of America, this project makes available the most comprehensive collection on the discovery, exploration, and administration of the Americas by the Spaniards. 10 million items (including 8000 pictorial images) are being captured in digital form in a joint project of the Archivo, the Ramon Areces Foundation, and IBM Spain, using pioneering technology. The project is among the most ambitious anywhere, and has been frequently cited as a model for cooperation among archivists and technical experts. “It is uncertain at this time whether or when international access over the Internet will be made available.” Distribution via CD-ROM is another option being considered.9

Contact: Pedro Gonzalez Garcia, Dir. of Archives: tel: +3454225158 and fax: +345421 9485

Margarita Vazquez de Parga, Dir. Spain’s Archives at Ministry of Culture in Madrid; fax: +34/1/531.92.12

II. Examples of Broad Subject Areas with Significant Activity


The law field has a long history of networked access to key resources, pioneered by the Westlaw and Lexis services. A number of law libraries have formed a Consortium for Optical Imaging in order to promote and coordinate scanning activities.10

International Relations Project: Chicago-Kent School of Law

A major project to scan the Chicago-Kent’s Information Center Collections (including the Chicago-Kent Law Library, the Library of International Relations, and the Stuart Business Library) to enable worldwide, remote access. Thus far, 2 million pages have been digitized including, the complete collection of UN Human Rights Commission documents, U. S. Reports of the Supreme Court, UN press releases from the first 10 years of the organization’s existence, UN and U.S. Treaty Series, more than 50 law journal titles, as well as additional international trade and statistical material and Illinois documents (the Administrative Code and Illinois census documents). Next the project will scan the COM document series of the European Union and all of the FAO documents. The project captures approximately 35,000 pages per week.

Contact: Mickie Voges,; 312-906-5615

Project Janus: Columbia University Law Library

An ambitious project to scan 10,000-12,000 law titles with full-text search and retrieval capabilities. Originally launched as a supercomputer project using search software from Thinking Machines Corp., plans changed mid-stream when Thinking Machines went into Chapter 11. Columbia temporarily halted conversion (at 200,000 pages) and started the process of porting the software to Sun UNIX machines. It is not clear if the project will recover from the setback (as most of the key staff have left Columbia).

Contact: James Hoover;, 212/854-2635

Project DIANA: University of Cincinnati College of Law

DIANA is an on line collection of human rights documents, from the University of Cincinnati and other collections (it honors Diana Vincent-Daviss, a recently deceased law librarian who was devoted to human rights issues). The concentration is on the core instruments of human rights with plans to expand to include primary and secondary materials at a later date. Current digitization is of the resolutions of the Organization of African Unity and the Dumbarton Oaks papers of the 1940s. The initial focus is on legal materials, but the scope will eventually encompass other human rights literature. Bitmapped images are captured first; Intelligent Character Recognition (1CR) is used to obtain ASCII text, which is then marked up in SGML. Long term availability issues have driven many of the technical decisions (including the choice of TEI/SGML and ASCll).

Contact: Taylor Fitchett, Law Library Director; 513/556-0159;

United States Patent Office Project

The U.S. Patent Office scans approximately 10,000 patent drawings a week to produce patent documents and The Official Gazette. Additional U. S. Patent Office Projects are described in the NARA Digital Imaging and Optical Storage Report, published in 1994 and available as NARA Technical Information Paper, No. 12 at: gopher://

Contact: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Arlington, VA; 703/308-0810

Patent Express Jukebox

One million current patents have been scanned onto 12 linked CD-ROM jukeboxes in a British Library Project. Patents are from the UK, United States, Patent Cooperation Treaty, and the European Patents Office.

Contact: [British Library Initiatives for Access home page on the Internet].

Studies in Scarlet: Research Libraries Group

Seven RLG member institutions are participating in a two-year collaborative project that proposes to develop an on line core collection of diverse legal materials, relating to the unifying theme of “Marriage and Sexuality in the United States and United Kingdom, 1815-1914.” If funding requests are successful, the project will be launched in the Spring of 1996 with the following participants: Harvard University Law Library, University of Leeds, New York Public Library, North Carolina State Archives, New York University Law Library, University of Pennsylvania Law Library, and the Princeton University Libraries. The project will build on the recommendations of the joint RLG/CPA Digital Archiving Task Force (described under the Infrastructure Projects heading) by beginning to develop best practices for establishing and maintaining a digital archive.

Contact: Ricky Erway,; 415/691-2228


Brazilian Government Documents Project: Center for Research Libraries/Latin American Microfilm Project (LAMP)

This ambitious project will digitize and promote scholarly use of Brazilian government documents, published between 1830-1990, working primarily from already-created microfilm of these materials.

Contact: Dan Hazen, Harvard University Libraries, 6171495-2427;

Caribbean Newspaper Project: University of Florida

This grant-supported project will digitize and promote scholarly access to Caribbean newspapers published between 1844 and 1979. Approximately 200,000 microfilm exposures from two Caribbean newspaper runs (Le nouvelliste, Haiti and Diario del la Marina, Cuba) will be converted into 375,000 digital images, creating indexes and abstracts in English, French, and Spanish in the process. The images will be published in optical disk format and also made available via the Internet (through a fee-based service that will distribute file subsets).

Contact: Erich Kesse, University of Florida, 3521692-6962;


Ancient Near East and Classics Material: University of Chicago

The University of Chicago Library received funds (as part of a larger National Endowment for the Humanities preservation project) for a modest, but interesting, effort to scan deteriorated volumes in these subject areas if they contain both text and illustrative materials. The project includes approximately 100 volumes, which constitutes a very small part of the library’s collection.

Contact: Sherry Byrne, Preservation Librarian,

Papyrus Archives: Duke University

This NEH funded project provides electronic access to texts about and images of papyri from Ancient Egypt. The project focused on conserving, interpreting, cataloging, and imaging the Duke Papyrus collection. There are plans to expand the project to include papyrus collections at Columbia, Berkeley, Michigan, and other universities. The project is fully documented, complete with thumbnail images of the papyri, at its Web site:

Contact: Steven Hensen, Special Collections Dept., Duke University; 91 9/660-5826,


Maine Folklife Center: University of Maine, Fogler Library

The mixed media project is capturing selections from the Center which is a repository for manuscripts, tape recordings, transcripts of tapes, and photographs–all relating to folklore, folklife and the social history of Maine and the Canadian Maritimes. Significant portions of the collections will be in the database (a total of 732 accessions represented by 24,912 images, 760 photographs, and 639 text files).

Contact: Marilyn Lutz;; 2071581-1658

Melchior Center for Recent History: University of the Virgin Islands

The University is converting (with OCR technology, supplemented by some scanning of images and text if OCR is not appropriate) all of the Virgin Islands local government and historical texts contained in the Melchior Center. Staff have completed 10% of the project.

Contact: David Oettinger, Director of Libraries;; 8091693-1361

Project Open Book: Yale University

This project is in the process of converting to digital format 10,000 books already on microfilm (as part of previous preservation projects) from American and European history collections (in the public domain). The project goals are to explore the usefulness of digital technology for preservation, to enhance intellectual access to the content of the books, and to make the image and index data available to remote sites. It is a research and development project which is establishing specifications for this pioneering work, as well as documenting production-oriented methods for rapid, efficient, and high quality transfer. (This project is undertaken in tandem with Cornell’s Core Literature of Agriculture project–see Science and Technology section.)

Contact: Paul Conway, Preservation Dept., Yale University;

Burney Collection Microfilm Digitisation: British Library

Still in progress, this project is scanning 1500 reels of microfilm from the Burney collection of 18th-century newspapers and broadsheets covering the French Revolution. Thus far, staff have scanned the years 1789-93. Once the scanning is complete, the text will also pass through OCR and an indexing stage.

Contact: Geraldine Kenny, British Library;

American Memory: Library of Congress

This was the Library’s first major digitization project. More than 210,000 items from approximately 24 collections on American culture and history were digitized. After an initial test at 44 remote sites, six of these public domain collections are now available to anyone via the Internet:

  • Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865
  • Early films of San Francisco before and after the earthquake and fire, 1897- 1907
  • Life history manuscripts from the Folklife Project, WPA Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1939
  • Color photographs from the Farm Security Administration and the Office of War Information, ca. 1938-1944
  • Early films of New York City, 1897-1906

Contact: Carl Fleischhauer, Project Director, Room LM-603, Madison Building, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540; 2021707-6233; World Wide Web address:

Steel Worker’s Organizing Committee (SWOC) Collection: Penn State University

14,517 images (of faded reports and other primary source material) from this collection were scanned (completed in June 1993).

Contact: Sue Kellerman; Preservation Librarian; 8141865-1858;

Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Photographic Database

The Pittsburgh Public Schools, the University of Pittsburgh, and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center formed a consortium (supported by approximately $500,000 from the Dept. of Commerce NTIA) to establish electronic links among three Pittsburgh schools, the Hill House, and the Carnegie Libraries of Pittsburgh via the Internet. An extensive collection of materials on the history of Pennsylvania will be converted, including portions of the Pittsburgh Photographic Library with a collection of over 57,000 prints and negatives offering a visual history of the city. A portion of the images will be made available on the Internet sometime in 1995.

[Source: Press release from Imagelib listserv, October 1994]

Heinz Electronic-Library Interactive Online System (HELIOS)

Carnegie Mellon University has received more than $1 million to develop a digital, historical archive of the papers of the late Sen. H. John Heinz Ill of Pennsylvania. Additional funds will also be provided by the University, as well as CLARITECH, which donated the software for HELIOS. The goal is to develop an electronic archive that will serve as a model for others. In the first phase, one million of the most significant documents (25% of the collection) will be digitized and converted to a machine-readable full text, digital archive.

Contact: Erik Brown, CLARITECH Corp., 4121621-0570;

Paul Laurence Dunbar: Wright State University

The entire collection of Dunbar’s poems, novels, plays, libretti, etc. are being scanned; sound files are being included as well. A prototype is available on the World Wide Web at

Contact: Arnold Hirschon, University Librarian;

Electronic Beowulf: British Library

The original thousand-year-old manuscript of Beowulfs epic combats has been digitized by high resolution cameras. The digital images allow scholars to view the text in microscopic detail and recapture words and phrases erased by the original scribes, as well as words that have been hidden since the 1731 fire damage and restoration.

Contact: Access is available via the University of Kentucky Web site: or contact Kevin Kernan at

Bureau of American Ethnology Reports on Studies of Native Americans:

Smithsonian Institution Libraries The Smithsonian plans (funds permitting) to scan the entire series on Native Americans, which includes 199 reports and an index published between 1887 and 1971.

Contact: Barbara Smith, Director; LlBEMOO7@SlVM.SI.EDU; 202/357-2240

The Andre Sakharov Papers: Brandeis University

Brandeis Library staff have scanned and indexed 10% of the 20,000 pages of materials from the Andre Sakharov Papers. They are working in collaboration with a sister archive in Russia (that has not yet started actual scanning).

Contact: Tania Brum, Project Manager, Brandeis; 617/736-4717


CLASS Project: Cornell University

This pioneering project scanned page images of 600 volumes, or 25% of Cornell’s pre-1917 imprints on higher mathematics (as well as another 500 volumes in other subject areas). It explored key issues relating to digital preservation of, as well as access to, deteriorating collections. It also focused on creating and documenting an economical, production level environment for mass conversion of retrospective collections to digital form, and it emphasized continuing access to bound, printed volumes.

Contact: Anne R. Kenney, Cornell Libraries,

Networked Computer Science Technical Reports: Cornell University

This project is building an on line library of computer science technical reports that is international in scope (including reports from CS departments and industrial and government research laboratories). The entire collection of Cornell’s Computer Science Technical Reports has been scanned. That collection dates back to 1968 and includes (at present) 1526 documents. Other participants in the collaborative technical reports project are engaged in similar conversion efforts (including Stanford University).

Contact: Jim Davis, CSTR Project,; World Wide Web access:

U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Technical Reports: Ruth H. Hooker Library

Since 1989, the Naval Research Lab has been digitizing a collection of about 250,000 technical reports, dating from the early 1940s to the present. In many cases they represent the first documentation of seminal research into many of today’s commonplace technologies (e.g. radar, microwaves, etc.). The majority have restrictions on access. Approximately 50% of the collection (over 6.5 million pages) has been converted. Subjects include: acoustics, electronics, atmospheric and oceanic sciences, space, radar, sonar, material science, etc.

Contact: Murray Bradley, Naval Research Lab,

DAISY (Dissertations Available on Internet Systems)

Dissertations in Engineering, May 1993-August 1995: Cornell University Cornell University scanned all of its 114 dissertations in the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, and civil and environmental engineering for this period. It is part of a project cosponsored by CNl, UMI, and the Council of Graduate Schools to look at the feasibility of making Ph.D. dissertations available on the Internet. The University of Michigan and Penn State University are also participating in this project.

(Source: Ed Weissman, Cornell University, 607/255-5754)

Oppenheimer Papers: Library of Congress

Johns Hopkins University conducted a pilot project with National Science Foundation support and completely scanned the “Government Papers” from the Library of Congress’s Oppenheimer Papers collection. That constituted 10,000 items, or 20-25% of the total collection. (Not available on the Internet.)

Contact: Robert Cargin, Johns Hopkins University;

The Pauling Collection: Oregon State University

OSU’s library is in the process of converting the collection of Nobel Prize winner and Oregon native Linus Pauling and his wife Ava Helen Pauling into digital format. The plan is to provide worldwide access to these materials via the Internet, although local campus users can search the system through the OSU online public catalog. OCR technology is being used for the conversion (with 75- 80% accuracy, although they hope to achieve 100% accuracy).

Source: OSU Press Release, dated June 20, 1994.

Louis Agassiz Fuertes Papers: Cornell University

This project is scanning 2000 items, primarily artwork, but also including a small number of manuscripts (letters and expedition journals) from the Fuertes collection (subject=ornithology). The total collection contains 16 cubic feet. The project is experimenting with Kodak Photo CD technology.

Contact: Tom Hickerson,; 607/255-3530 (an on line exhibit is available at:

National Agricultural Library (NAL) Projects

Early on the NAL embraced the concept of replacing its traditional collections with a digital one. To that end it has sponsored a host of digitization projects– many of them in collaboration with other research libraries housing complementary materials; and its staff has played a leadership role in standards development, training, and public awareness of the potential that online resources have to support research. Noteworthy are the NAL Text Digitizing Program and the NAL Photo Image Project. Digitizing projects underway as part of the text program include 100,000 pages of mostly unpublished research material on Food Irradiation and 6500 pages (155 titles) on AquacuIture, consisting of frequently requested reference materials. Approximately half of the 131 reel microfilm set of the Papers of George Washington Carver have been digitized as well (and the remaining reels await additional funding).

Contact: Judith Zidar, NATDP Coordinator, 301/504-6813;

National Agricultural Library (USDA), Special Collections Program

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) makes images available on the Internet, via the NAL Home Page. The plan is to continue to add to the on line collection as time and resources permit.

Contact: Ron Young,; World Wide Web address:

Pennsylvania Agricultural County Agent Reports Collection: Penn State University

Production scanning of this entire collection is still underway. This collection is being scanned for both preservation and access reasons; it consists of various brittle reports, log books, statistical data, photographs, correspondence, etc.

Contact:Sue Kellerman; Preservation Librarian; 814/865-1858;

Core Literature of the Agricultural Sciences, 1860-1950: Cornell University

Cornell is in the middle of a project to scan 1500 volumes from its Mann Library by the Spring of 1996 (with NEH and T-2C funds). This will constitute approximately 12.5% of the core set of monographs published in agriculture during this time period. This is a research and demonstration project to investigate the creation of preservation quality Computer Output Microfilm from high resolution bitonal images. (This project is seen as a counterpoint to Yale’s Project Open Book–see History section; the two projects will produce a joint report on quality, processes, and costs associated with creating both microfilm for preservation and digital images for access.)

Contact: Anne R. Kenney, Cornell Libraries,

III. Examples of Special, Archival, and Manuscript Collections

Projects that involve scanning of photographic or other pictorial materials are by far the most common. There are probably thousands of them. Kodak Photo CD and other scanning systems have enabled libraries, archives, and museums to experiment with the technology for improving access to these collections. Below is a sampling of the types of image scanning projects that are proliferating. There are still some major technical and legal hurdles in the way of large scale conversion and networked sharing of images. Until these issues are resolved, most of these projects are restricted to local use; however, some are designed to forge solutions to these problems. (See also the listings under Infrastructure Projects.)

Performing Arts Collection: University of Florida

The Library’s Special Collections Department is embarking on a project to scan 10,000 images of playbills and photographs (and other iconographic information) featuring 18th-20th century American and British performing arts into the department’s relational database.

Contact: John Ingram, 904/392-9075

Pacific Collection: University of Hawaii

The University of Hawaii is digitizing its Trust Territory Archives Photo Collection. These are documentary photographs relating to the Pacific Islands. 12% of the collection has been scanned.

Contact: Nancy J. Morris, Head Special Collections, 808/956-8473

Israeli Posters: Harvard University Library

The Judaica Division of the Harvard University Libraries has recently completed a project to capture its extensive collection of Israeli posters on CD-ROM, using Kodak photo CD technology. During the four-month project in 1994, approximately 55,000 posters were photographed (as slides) and then digitized. The collection was also organized and cataloged to promote easy access to the entire body of posters in any subject category. The Judaica Division has plans to supplement this project by imaging 20,000 photographs of Israeli religious posters (in collaboration with an Israeli sociologist who photographs these posters as part of his research). The Division has also placed its slide collection of 6000 images on photo CD and will add about 1000 maps as well.

Contact: Violet Gilboa or Charles Berlin, Harvard Judaica Division, Widener Lib.

Digital Image Access Project: Research Libraries Group

Nine RLG institutions participated in an 18 month project focused on use of new technology to improve access to and preservation of photographic images. The Amon Carter Museum, Columbia University, Duke University, the Getty Center for the History of and the Humanities, the Frances Loeb Library of Harvard University Graduate School of Design, the New York Public Library, Northwestern University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the Library of Congress all contributed approximately 1000 images each to a digital image database in order to experiment with an online image management system and to find economical ways to catalog and index large photographic collections–as well as to make them more accessible using electronic technology. The project ended in April 1995, although subsequent efforts that build on this project are being planned. The images are not available via the Internet at this point.

Contact: Ricky Erway,, 415/691-2228.]

University of Georgia Rare Books and Manuscripts

  • Rare Map Collection (800+ maps)
  • WPA Photographic Collection (450 prints)
  • Confederate Constitution (9 images)
  • Paris Music Hall Collection (7000 renderings)

100% of each of these collections was scanned (except for the Paris Collection project which is only half way done so far). The collections are filmed first for preservation purposes, and the digital scans are used as the access copies. The subject areas covered are: art, drama, history, economics, music, etc.

Contact: W. Potter, University of Georgia,

The Huntington Library

  • Otis Marston Collection (30,000 photographs)
  • William Blake works (drawings, paintings, book illustrations) Both of these collections were scanned in their entirety. The Marston Collection relates to Western U. S. history and the Blake collection classifies under art.

Contact: Mark Roosa,

Wright Brothers Photographs: Wright State University

100% of the aviation photographs from the Wright Brothers collection are being scanned as well as about 7% of the non-aviation photographs (out of 1900 photos). The images will be issued on CD-ROM and may be made available through a Web server as well.

Contact: Arnold Hirschon, University Librarian;

Basel (Switzerland) Mission Archive

This project, which has received support from a recent Getty grant, is scanning 50,000 historical mission photographs taken 1840-1945 in Africa, Asia, and Indonesia. The goal is to provide international access to the collection.

Contact: Paul Jenkins, Archivist, Basel Mission; fax: +41/61/26.88.268

Project Delphi: California State University, Long Beach and San Jose State University

A joint project to create a “comprehensive digitized image set in support of a History of World Art [course].”12

Approximately 4,000 slides have been digitized thus far, and a small subset made available on the Internet’s World Wide Web for experimental purposes. The entire database is accessible for educational purposes on California State University local campus networks.

Contacts: Kathleen Cohen, at San Jose State University; and Scott Bell, at California State University, Long Beach.

California Heritage Digital Access Project: University of Calffornia at Berkeley

This project focuses on primary source materials documenting California culture and history. It intends to implement a three-tiered archival access model using navigation tools in a client-server environment. In the process the project will produce a database of 25,000 digital images from the University of California at Berkeley collections.

Contact: Bernie Hurley, UC Berkeley Libraries,, 510/642-5168; or Tim Hoyer,

Project Utopia: Cornell University

Currently in a pilot phase, Project Utopia involves the conversion of 5000 images (to scale to 150,000) of Renaissance Art and Architecture, taken from holdings of the Johnson Art Museum, the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, and the slide libraries of the History of Architecture and the History of Art. Image are scanned using Kodak Photo CD. The project features student access and use, both in and outside the classroom.

Contact: Tom Hickerson,; 607/255-3530.

IV. Infrastructure Projects and “List of Lists”

There are a number of significant projects underway–some quite ambitious and well funded–to either resolve issues, establish standards, or build tools that will enhance the effectiveness of an international on line information infrastructure. Noteworthy among these are:

RLG/CPA Task Force on Digital Archiving

In December 1994, the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Research Libraries Group created this task force to investigate the means of ensuring “continued access indefinitely into the future of records stored in digital electronic form.” The task force included individuals drawn from industry, museums, archives and libraries, publishers, scholarly societies and government. They were charged with framing the problems that need to be resolved, defining the critical issues, recommending actions, and consider alternatives to technology refreshing. The draft report was submitted in the fall of 1995, and is available at:

Contact: Don Waters, Task Force Co-chair,; 2031432- 1824.

Online Books Evaluation Project: Columbia University

This project (funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation) will develop a comprehensive evaluation methodology for Columbia’s ongoing activities to create a digital library. The objective is to make available online within the Columbia community several Columbia University Press reference tools, as well as approximately 100 Oxford University Press monographs in selected fields, some high-use Simon and Schuster titles, and various texts for the study of the humanities, such as Greek and Latin texts and primary works in philosophy, religion, and history.

Contact: Mary Summerfield, Columbia University Libraries;

Integrated Library Multimedia System Project: New York University

In October 1994, the Andrew W. Mellon foundation provided funds for a 4-year project to develop and evaluate a fully integrated multimedia information system. The goal is to provide users with logical, cost-effective access to a broad array of information resources from their local workstations. The library will create a hierarchical linked catalog and menu system that guides users to and between different information resources (both local and remote). There are also plans to develop several image, sound and video databases that can be used through the catalog and menu system. Interactive multimedia tutorials will also be developed to assist users.

Contact: Nancy Kranich,

Museum Educational Site Licensing Project (MESL): Geuy Art History Information Program/MUSE Educational Media

This project is exploring the terms and conditions for the educational use of museum digital content on campus networks. Fourteen museums and universities are collaborating to develop solutions to the technical, legal and administrative challenges raised as the teaching and practice of art and cultural history moves into the digital era. In the process, the project aims to develop a model site license, which will make it possible for students to gain access to museum content, without having to “pay per view.”. Approximately 8000 museum images with related textual information are being made available on the participating university campuses during this pilot project.

Contact: Jennifer Trant, Imaging Initiative, Gefty Art History Information Program, 31 0M51 -6381;

Encoded Archival Description (EAD) Project: University of California at Berkeley

This pioneering project (formerly called Berkeley Finding Aids Project) is experimenting with SGML encoding of finding aids for special collections material to enhance online, networked access to primary source materials. The project is attempting to arrive at a standard approach through a consensus building process with the special collections and archival communities.

Contact: Daniel Pifti; 510/643-6602;

National Digital Library Federation: Commission on Preservation and Access

Fifteen of the nation’s largest research libraries and archives have recently formed an alliance with the Library of Congress to create a distributed, open digital library on the Internet. The Federation intends to create a collaborative management structure, a coordinated funding strategy and to develop selection guidelines to support the general theme of U. S. heritage and culture. The Federation will adopt common standards and best practices in support of high quality capture and universal accessibility.

Contact: Deanna Marcum, CPA, Washington, D. C. 202/939-3400;

National Science Foundation

The NSF has recently awarded grants totaling $24.4M (over 4 years) to six universities that are leading major research and development projects. They will develop systems for collecting, storing, and organizing digital information and making it readily available via the emerging Information Infrastructure. Institutions: Carnegie Mellon, UC Berkeley, University of Michigan, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, and University of Illinois.

Contact: Y. T. Chien, Dir. of NSF’s Division of Information, Robotics, and Intelligent Systems.

Cultural Heritage Information Online (CHIO): Consortium for the Interchange of Museum Information (CIMO)

This consortium (supported by the Research Libraries Group, the Getty Art History Information Program, the Canadian Heritage Information Network, the Museum Computer Network, and others) has launched two ambitious infrastructure projects–one to test the use of SGML encoding for retrieval of images and the other to work out some of the technical and other problematic issues involved in the exchange of museum information online (using Z39.50 protocols).

Contact: John Perkins, CIMI Director,; 902/826-2824

JSTOR: The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (Hosted by the University of Michigan)

This effort, spearheaded by the Mellon Foundation, will create an archive of ten core economics and history journals. It will also allow evaluation of changes in user behavior vis-a-vis storage of back volumes of these titles. Journals are scanned, followed by OCR conversion (at a 99.5% accuracy rate). Initially five college libraries and the University of Michigan will participate.

Contact: Wendy Lougee, Asst. Dir. Digital Library Initiatives, University of Michigan Libraries, 3131764-8016;; or Kevin Guthrie at the Mellon Foundation.

Internet Library of Early Journals: Universities of Oxford, Manchester, Birmingham, and Leeds

A large cooperative project is in the planning stages in the UK to create this online resource of early journals. Funding is being sought and appears likely to be approved.



TULIP is an initiative of Elsevier Science Publishers to explore the issues involved in electronic distribution of scholarly journals. The TULIP project involves nine universities and about sixty Materials Science journal titles. Users from the nine participating institutions can browse the journals, view digital images of the actual pages, as well as search the full text.

Contact: Karen Hunter, Elsevier Science Publishers (or see Cornell’s Home Page on World Wide Web which makes all of the TULIP newsletters available online)

Prototype Digital Library: IBM and ISI

In cooperation with the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), IBM plans to create a digital library consisting of 1350 scientific journals in the life sciences, “complete with a catalog that allows searching by journal, author, title, subject matter, key words, and so on.”13 This project builds on the digital image scanning, searching, and storing technologies used for the Vatican Project. The idea is that IBM will be able to charge for dial-up access to library holdings (provided by libraries, museums, and publishers).14

List of Lists: Selected World Wide Web Internet Addresses for Other Sources of Information about Digital Collections

Clearinghouse of Image Data bases

The best existing directory of library and archive (and some museum) digital projects. (See footnote #7 on page 5.)

EJournal SiteGuide: a MetaSource

A good starting place for journals in electronic form, this Web site links to additional sites for electronic journals.

Examples of Online Resource Guides Accessible Via the Internet

There are innumerable Web-based resource guides available on the Internet. Most refer to at least some digitized collections. A few examples are included to illustrate the kinds of tools that students and scholars already have at their disposal. Any online guide to digital collections should link to sources such as these discipline-based ones.

Latin American Studies:

A good example of an online finding aid is the Latin American Network Information Center at the University of Texas at Austin:..

Medieval Studies:

An online service called Medieval Labyrinth acts as a disciplinary server for medieval studies. It provides connections to electronic resources on other servers around the world, including a full range of new resources for medieval studies under development at Georgetown University.


ArtSource is an excellent starting place for finding images and other electronic resources on art and architecture available via the Internet.

Literature and Literary Studies:

A University of Pennsylvania Web site called Literary Resources on the Net is a superb demonstration of efficient networked access in a particular subject area.

Electronic Text Archives:

ALEX: A Catalog of Electronic Texts on the Internet:

Electronic Text Center: University of Virginia: (Contact: David Seaman; or 8041924-3230)

Center for Electronic Texts in the Humanities: (Contact: Susan Hockey;

Carnegie Mellon Online Books:

Appendix I

Council on Library Resources
Commission on Preservation and Access

Digital Collections Inventory Report

By Patricia A. McClung
February 1996

The Data

As expected, the investigations turned up a hodgepodge of responses. There are innumerable projects which feature pictorial images (e.g. photograph collections, maps, drawings of some sort, or museum collections); there are documentary text editing projects for individual personal papers; there are literary and historical text encoding projects (which for the most part feature SGML encoding); there are efforts to convert entire collections or to provide a critical mass of materials in a particular subject area; and there are a wide variety of experimental projects of one flavor or another. In addition to projects which convert print-based and/or photographic materials, there are a host of mixed-media projects, as well as projects focused on additional formats such as sound recordings, films, microfilm, motion picture film, etc. There are also a number of initiatives to make materials whose original format is electronic widely available via the Internet.

Many of these projects are clearly experimental in nature; experimentation is essential in these early stages of the development of an electronic information environment. A number of other projects seem to be undertaken because of a widespread feeling that it is important to have digital projects underway in order to be current with the trends; but even these help to increase the knowledge base in the library and academic community–something which is also extremely important to the transition. Taken altogether the inventory highlights clusters of initiatives and indicates that a critical mass of on line resources is evolving–although not yet with any apparent coherence or logic.

In the course of the survey, it was pointed out more than once that a clearer definition of what was meant by ‘scanned collections’ was needed to help the potential respondents understand what the inventory would and would not include. While the focus of the investigation was to compile an inventory of retrospective library and archive collections that have been (or will soon be) converted to electronic form for networked distribution, the actual situation in cyberspace is that there are no clear demarcations or obvious definitions for distinguishing types of electronic resources and tools. In fact, there are many different perceptions and working definitions of what actually constitutes a scanning, a digitization, and/or an electronic conversion project. If the survey is an accurate indicator, most people use these terms somewhat interchangeably to refer to a variety of initiatives that ultimately result in electronic availability of retrospective materials converted from other formats. The reason is that although the term ‘scanning’ usually refers to the capture of digital page images (also referred to as bitmapped or raster images), this form of digital capture is sometimes followed by optical character recognition (OCR) conversion to fully searchable text–which then might be encoded using SGML, HTML or some other markup language.

In fact, there are very few “scanning-only” projects, other than for pictorial types of images. Furthermore, it is obvious from this survey that no two projects are exactly alike. Technical decisions are governed by many factors: the available hardware, software, and expertise; the nature and formats of the materials themselves; the anticipated use; and the budget. That said, the conversion projects usually fall into one of these general technical categories:

  1. Digital image projects that take an “electronic photograph” of pages, graphics, prints, photographic materials, maps, or whatever (with accompanying metadata for describing, structuring, and indexing the image database).2
  2. Digital imaging projects with additional text-searchable files generated from the images (these can be uncorrected text files used for indexing purposes).
  3. Full-text conversion projects involving either keyboard entry or Optical Scanning Recognition (OCR);3
  4. Text encoding projects using SGML or HTML, or some other mark up language.4

This survey report focuses primarily on the first two categories, both of which involve the “electronic photograph” capture method–often referred to as scanning. This method is used most often in the retrospective conversion of traditional source material, because it “can accurately render the information, layout, and presentation of original source documents.” The third and fourth categories produce electronic text–that is, data that can be manipulated for searching and indexing purposes.5

While there is still considerable discussion in the field about which of these four options is appropriate–and when, the users of these electronic documents are beginning to speak up. They want to download and manipulate the text and images–not just look at a book page on a computer screen. Some projects are providing both a digital image and an electronic version of textual materials. However, the economic factors rear their ugly heads at this point, because fully searchable texts are far more expensive and time consuming to produce than bitmapped page image scans.6>

ALA Survey of Imaging Projects

To: Patti McClung" <BL.PAM@RLG.Stanford.EDU>
Date: Fri, 28 Ki; 95 05:18:32 -0500
Subject: Re: List of Imaging projects (from Imagelib)

Appended is my posting on list of imaging projects. Sandeep Somaiya

Subject: List of Imaging Projects

Hello, during the last couple of days I have seen a number of messages to the group asking for a list of imaging projects in libraries. The most notable of which is RLMS Electronic Imaging Technologies Committee list that was handed out at ALA last month. I just went ahead and scanned in the list and OCR’ed it. It is appended to this mail. The list might have some errors due to limits of OCR technology. If you find an email address or phone number that does not work please send email directly to and I will check the original and email you the correct information.

In addition to the RLMS list I am also appending a list of four other projects that I have been involved with personally.

This list contains:

  • 66 on-going projects from ALA RLMS EIT Committee survey list
  • 16 planned projects from ALA RLMS EIT Committee survey list
  • 4 other projects

List size is approximately 34K.

Sandeep Somaiya

VTLS INC. Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg VA 24060 USA

W:(703) 231 3605  Fax: (703) 231 3648 Email:


        "My opinions are my own, and do not necessarily

                reflect those of my employer."


DESC: Collaborative research project with IBM to preserve more than 8 million fragile documents relating to Spain’s exploration of the New World.

REFS: (1) Gonzalez Garcia, P. “Historical Documentation and Digital Conversion of Images at the Proyecto de Informatizacion of the Archivo General de Indias. Seville.” Microform Review, 18 (Fall 1989): 217-221. (2) “Columbus’ Letters Go On Disc.” Electronic Documents 2, no. 1 (January 1993): 10.


DESC: Digitizing color and black and white news photographs using the AP Leas Preserver system with images stored on optical platters accessible in the library and at a news desk.

CONTACT: Mary Johnson, Phoenix Newspaper Inc. Library, P.O. 1950, Phoenix, AZ 85001, Telephone:602-238-4478


DESC: AT&T has been scanning internal technical memoranda since 1989. The library’s online catalog includes bibliographic citations to the scanned memoranda. Images can be displayed at the user’s workstation or a hard copy print can be sent directly to the user.

CONTACT: AT&T Information Services Network, 600 Mountain Avenue. Room 6A-31I, Murray Hill. NJ 07974, Telephone: 908-582-4361


DESC: Pilot project to preserve and provide international access to a collection of 50,000 historical photographs. Photos are re-photographed and transferred from film to electronic format.

CONTACT: Basler Mission, Abt. Archiv/Photoprojekt, Missionstrasse 21, CH4003 Basel, Switzerland


DESC: Digitizing material from the John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera utilizing Photo-CD format with images linked to a database containing detailed textual information, searchable in full text.

CONTACT: Richard Gartner, Pearson New Media Librarian, Bodleian Library, Oxford University, Broad Street. Oxford OXI 3BG, United Kingdom. Telephone: +44 965 277060. Fax: +44 865 277182 (GARTNER8VAX.OX.AC.UK)

REF: Gartner, R. “Digitising the Bodleian?” Bookseller, no. 4574 (August 20. 1993): 220-223.


DESC: Have converted over 250,000 photographs to a Macintosh-based 12-inch WORM optical disk system.

CONTACT: Birmingham Public Library, 2100 Park Place, Birmingham, AL 35203, Telephone:205-226-3600


DESC: Boulder Public Library has implemented photo image access in the online catalog, an enhancement to its CARL System Public Access Catalog. Photo images are linked to corresponding MARC records.

CONTACT:Boulder Public Library, 1000 Canyon Rd., Boulder, CO. 90306, Telephone: 303-441-3100


DESC: Scanning materials from their photo archives and interested in enhancing scanned images of music scores that are badly damaged using Adobe Photoshop. Also exploring Kodak PhotoCD technology for cataloging or storing images.

CONTACT: David Day, Music Librarian, Brigham Young University, 5222 HBLL, Provo, UT 84602,Telephone: (801) 378-6119, FAX (801) 378-6347 []


DESC: Digital archiving service for museums, libraries, schools and businesses for documents ranging from CAD/CAE drawings. musical, literary, and artistic masterpieces to legal documents. The Huntington Library has participated in Ule Phoenix Project on a pilot level, scanning special collections materials.

CONTACT: Robert Howell, MMRP Director, Multi-Media Research Project, Dept. of Applied Art and Design, Cal ·Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Telephone: 805-756-2772


DESC: In cooperation with San Jose State University, are scanning 20,000 slides using EmbARK software (Digital Collection Inc.) to support a World Art Survey course.

CONTACT: Scott Bell, Cal State Long Beach []


REFS: Tinsley, G.L., and K.M. Youtison. “The Carnegie-Mellon University Library Information Systems (LIS): Applications Within the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Online Environment.” Special Libraries, 84, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 18-24.


DESC: Using videodisc technology to store digital images of a million photographs with descriptive text for retrieval.

CONTACT: Cleveland Public Library, 325 Superior Ave., Cleveland, OH 44114, Telephone: 216-623-2800


DESC: Scanning slides using Photo-CD technology and Kodak Shoebox program to index each image with an image number, photographer and brief citation. Would like to network the images in the near future.

CONTACT: Ellen Blackwell, Audiovisual Catalog Librarian, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library, P.O. Box 1776, Williamsburg, VA 23187, Telephone: 804-220-7414 []


DESC: Pilot project to create a digital (and color microfilm) version of portions of the NYS Museum Bulletin with the focus on pictures, graphs and maps.

CONTACT: Susan Klimley, Lamont-Doherty Geological Library, Columbia University, Palisades, NY []

REFS: (1) Klimley, Susan. “Notes from the Cutting Edge. Microform Review, 22, no. 3, Summer 1993:105-107. (2) “Pilot Project Demonstrates CD-ROM. Fiche Products.-‘ The Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, no. 53 (Feb. 1993): 2-3.


DESC: Project to convert 10,000-12,000 law titles to digital images with full-text search and retrieval capabilities using a supercomputer and advanced search software from Thinking Machines Corp.

CONTACT: Columbia Law School Library, Jerome Grcene Hall, Box A-6, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, Telephone: 212-854-2645

REFS: (1) Reid, C. “Columbia Experiment will put Library Collection Online.” Publishers Weekly, 240 (February 22, 1993): 13. (2) “Virtual Library Created at Columbia Law.” Wilson Library Bulletin, 67 (March 1993): 12.


DESC: Developed in 1992, 14 participating law libraries are developing imaging technology for legal materials.

CONTACT: Nick Finke. Director of COILL, Cincinnati, OH, Telephone: 513-556-0103


DESC: Will test the feasibility of using digital image technology to create microfilm that will meet national preservation standards for quality and image permanence. 1,500 volumes of core historic agricultural material will be scanned and vendors selected to convert the high resolution digital images to preservation quality microfilm.

CONTACT: Anne R. Kenney, Associate Director, Dept. of Preservation and Conservation, 214 Olin Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, Telephone: 607-255-6875, []


DESC: Commission on Preservation and Access and Xerox Corporation sponsored project in which 1,000 mathematics volumes were scanned to create digital files with preservation quality paper facsimiles produced on demand.

CONTACT: Anne R. Kenney, Associate Director, Dept. of Preservation and Conservation, 214 Olin Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, Telephone: 607-255-6875, []


DESC: Kodak Library Image Consortium project with USC, Eastman Kodak and the Commission on Preservation and Access to scan photographic images utilizing the Kodak Photo CD process.

CONTACT: Tom Hickerson, Rare and Manuscript Collection, 2B70 Kroch Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, Telephone: 607-255-3530


DESC: Collaborative research project with the American Chemical Society, Chemical Abstracts Service, OCLC, Bellcore and the Mann Library to develop and implement an electronic library system and to study electronic information delivery. The full text and images of the 10 years of 20 key ACS journals are available to researchers over a local campus network.

CONTACT: Rich Entlich, Information Technology Section, Mann Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14953. Telephone: 607-255-4608 (


DESC: Project involves scanning sheet music to provide images and indexing using software available from Internet sites–WAIS from Thinking Machines and MIME (image, sound and text viewer) from ARCHIE. They also plan to make the actual music available as well.

CONTACT: Lois Schultz, Original Cataloger, Duke University Libraries []


DESC: A cooperative research project sponsored by Elsevier Science Publishers to test systems for networked delivery and use of 42 science and engineering journals in TIFF bit-mapped page images and ASCII full-text format.

CONTACT: Karen Hunter. Elsevier Science Publishers


DESC: Have developed an imaging system for technical and engineering reports. The library’s online catalog server and the indexing/finding tool with a full-text image available at a keystroke.

CONTACT: Ford Motor Company, Technical Information Section, 20000 Rotunda Drive, P.O. Box 1602, Dearborn, MI 48121, Telephone: 313-323-1059


REF: Broering, N.C. “Georgetown University: The Virtual Medical Library.” Computers in Libraries, 13, no. 2 (February 1993): 13.


DESC: The DOORS (Design-Oriented On-Line Resource System) research project archives and makes available in a networked environment, design reference materials including text, numeric and visual images (slides, drawings photographs), animations. digital video and multimedia efforts.

CONTACT: Hinda Sklar, Associate Dean for Information Services, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University. 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: 617-4954010, Fax: 617496-5929 [] or Erin Rae Hof fer, Assistant Dean for Information Technology. Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: 617-495-3703, Fax:617-496-5866 []



DESC: Multimedia project that includes text, images, sound and motion picture of early American archival, pamphlet and photographic material.

CONTACT: Carl Fleischhauer, Project Director, Room LM-603, Madison Building, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540

REFS: (1) Culshaw, H. “American Memory: Taking the Library of Congress to the Masses.” CD-ROM Librarian, 7, no. 9 (October 1992): 14-21. (2) “Our Collective Conscience: The American Memory Project. “Document Delivery World, 9, no. 4 (June/August 1993): 37-38.


DESC: Electronic Imaging Laboratory established in 1991 to digitize special collections materials including OCR to produce a full text database. Currently scanning 90,000 historical photographs and have many other projects in process.

CONTACT: Faye Phillips, Head, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections. Louisiana State University Libraries [NOTVFP@LSUVM]

REFS: (1) Condrey, R., F. Phillips, and T. Presti. “Historical Ecology: LSU’s Electronic Imaging Laboratory.” College and Research Libraries News, 54, no.8, (Sept. 1993). (2) Martin, R.S., and F. Phillips. “Scanning Historical Documents: The Electronic Imaging Laboratory at Louisiana State University.” Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 34, no. 4 (Fall 1993): 298-301.


DESC: Electronic archives project.

CONTACT: Michael Pate, Assistant Director for Public Services, Marquette University Memorial Library,Milwaukee, WI 53233, Telephone: 414-288-7214


DESC: MIT has a project underway to digitize a slide collection.

CONTACT: Katherine Poole, Rotch Visual Collections Librarian, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 Telephone: 617-253-7098 []


DESC: Project to scan 300 Chippewa Indian photographs to an interactive CD-ROM. Hope to include a catalog of the photographs on the disk.

CONTACT: Susan Otto, Photo Collection Manager, Milwaukee Public Museum, 800 W. Wells St., Milwaukee, WI 53233. Telephone: 414-278-2743. Fax: 414-278-6100 []


DESC: NAL and 45 Land Grant Libraries have conducted a cooperative effort to test the feasibility of using optical scanning and text recognition technologies to capture printed agricultural materials in machine-readable form. The resulting image and text data were then published on CD-ROM discs for distribution to the agricultural community.

CONTACT: Judith A. Zidar, NATDP Coordinator, USDA, NAL, ISD. Rm. 013, 10301 Baltimore Blvd. ,Beltsville, MD 20705-2~5l, Phone: (301) 504-6813, Fax: (301) 504-7473 []

REF: “National Agricultural Text Digitizing Project: Toward the Electronic Library.” November 1992. (available from NAL)


DESC: Cooperative project with the University of Pittsburgh School of Library and Information Science (SLIS) and Michigan State University Cooperative Extension Service (MSU) to digitize two collectionsl,000 hand-colored botanical prints from Curtis Botanical Magazine (1787-1904) and 1,000 slide images of plant pests and diseases.

CONTACT: Pamela R. Mason, Information Systems Division, 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705-2~5l, PH: (301)504-6813, FAX: (301)504-7473 []


DESC: Use imaging technology in exhibitions, conservation work and in managing the collections. The Micro Gallery project (opens in 1995) includes interactive computers that will provide information about the permanent collection. A pilot collection management project that combines collection information with high resolution digital images in also underway.

REF: Baker, C. “A Marriage of High-Tech and Fine Art: The National Gallery’s Micro Gallery Project.” Program, 27, no. 4 (October 1993): 341-52.

CONTACT: Vicki Porter, Curator, Micro Gallery, National Gallery of Art, 6th & Constitution Avenues, NW, Washington D.C. 20565, Telephone: 202-942-6740


DESC: Project utilizing Stokes Imaging Services to transfer over 300,000 slides and associated information such as caption, dates, photographer and copyright information to a 35mm intermediary and then to videodisc.

CONTACT: Maura Mulvihill, Director, Illustrations Library, National Geographic Society, 16th & M Streets, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, Telephone: 202-857-7492


REFS: (1) Grimshaw, A. “Full Steam Anead at the National Railway Museum.” Information Management and Technology, 26, no. 6 (November 1993): 270-271.

(2) Heap, Christine. “Photo Negative Database at the U.K.’s National Railway Museum.” Advanced Imaging, 8, no. 2 (February 1993): 36-39. (3) “Museum Scans Photos.” Electronic Documents. 2. no. 1 (January 1993): Il.


DESC: NRL has digitized significant portions of their collection of scientific reports with retrieval within the library and over a campus network by scientists at NRL. Plan to convert 7 million pages of documents to electronic format.

CONTACT: Laurie Stackpole, Chief Librarian, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375, Telephone: 202-767-2357 REF: Folen, D.R. and L.E Stackpole. “Optical Storage and Retrieval of Library Material.” Information Technology and Libraries, 12, no. 2 (June 1993): 181-192.


REF: Casorso, T.M. “NCSU Digitized Document Transmission Project: Improving Access to Agricultural Libraries.” Electronic Library, 10, no. 5 (October 1992): 271-273.


DESC: Digitizing 1,000 hand-colored botanical prints from Curtis’ Botanical Magazine (1787-1904). See National Agricultural Library Photo Image Project.

CONTACT: Sue Kellerman, Preservation Librarian, Penn State University, E506 Pattee Library, University Park, PA 16802, Telephone: 814-865-1858 [1sk@psulias.bitnet]


DESC: Interactive videodisc system that links images of 41,000 architectural drawings from Columbia’s Avery Library to their online catalog descriptions on RLIN.

CONTACT: RLIN Information Center, Telephone: 900-537-7546 []

REF: “Architectural Drawings from Columbia on Videodisc.” Campus-Wide Information Systems, 10. no.4 (July/August 1993): 8.


DESC: Eight RLG institutions (Amon Carter Museum, Calumbia, Duke, Getty Center, Harvard, New York Public, Northwestern and UC, Berkeley) are working together to explore the capabilities of digital image technology for managing access to photographic collections. 8,000 photographs will be digitized and image access software developed, tested and evaluated.

CONTACT: RLIN Information Center, Telephone: 800-537-7546 (]


DESC: Have completed a project to transfer pathology slides to videodisc.

CONTACT: Connie Weissman, Rush University, Dept. of Academic Computing Resources, 600 S. Paulina. Suite 433 AF, Chicago, IL 60612 []


REF: Bosseau, D.L. “Anatomy of a Small Step Forward: The Electronic Reserve Book Room at San Diego State University.” Journal of Academic Librarianship, 18 (January 1993): 366-368.


DESC: Have two projects: (1) Using Kodak Pro Scan technology, have scanned 366 images of paintings and drawings by Arnold Schoenberg. Images are stored on CD-ROMs and will be used (initially) for on-line exhibits; and (2) Will be scanning a correspondence collection (10,000+ items) of Arnold Schoenberg. Text (including English translation) and images will be added to a relational database inventory of the collection.

CONTACT: R. Wayne Shoaf. Archivist, Arnold Schoenberg Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angles, CA 90089-I 101; Telephone: 213-7404088; Fax: 213-7464507 []


DESC: Apple Library is working with the Smithsonian to make available digitized photos using the open,cross-platform standard, JFIF (JPEG File Interchange Format). You can get software, text files, and the images themselves on in the alug/Smith directories.

CONTACT: Steve Cisler, Apple Library, 10381 Bandley Dr. MS: 8C, Cupertino, CA 95014 []


DESC: Scanning images from auction catalogs to create a digital archive. 40.000 records have been scanned using a video camera, Quark software and a MAC computer for processing. and magnetic optical disks for Storage.

CONTACT: Patricia Russac, Sotheby’s Library, 1334 York Ave., New York, Nv 10021, Telephone: 212-606-7265.


DESC: Two projects, both using Kodak Photo CD technology: (1) scanning portions of the University Archives photograph collection and (2) scanning images in the University’s art collection (oil paintings, art on paper, sculpture). The images database will be indexed, made accessible for searching through Oracle software and networked for campus and remote access.

CONTACT: Peter Nelson, University Archivist/Special Collections Librarian, Scott memorial Library,Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, Telephone: 215-955-7769 []


REF: Willett, P., and D. Geraci. “Optical Scanning in an Academic library.” College and Research Libraries News. 11 December 1992): 698-699.


DESC: The U.S. Patent Office scans about 10,000 patent drawings a week to produce patent documents and The Official Gazette.

CONTACT: United States Patent and Trademark Office, 2021 Jefferson Davis Hwy, Arlington, VA 22202,Telephone: 703-308-0810


DESC: Have scanned photographic collections of scholarly value or regional significance and made them available to Gopher and WWW servers.

CONTACT: Stuart Glogoff, Library Information Systems, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ []


DESC: The Architecture Slide Library (ASL) has a visual online catalog, SPIRO with digitized images. Images are scanned in-house using Barneyscan and Kodak Photo CDs and are available on the Internet through xhost. Directions for use are on the UC-Berkeley InfoLib gopher under Affiliated Libraries.

CONTACT: Maryly Snow, Slide Librarian, U.C. Berkeley, [slides@ced. berkeley. edu]


DESC: Using the Argus system (Questor Systems), are creating an image database of objects in the museum collection. Items are photographed using a professional ouality video camera and the analog signal digitized using a Targa board. The database currently contains about 17,000 images. An existing collection of several thousand slides will be converted to PhotoCDs which can he converted to the Questor system.

CONTACT: Don McClelland, Assistant Director, Fowler Museum of Cultural History, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024, Telephone: 310-925-4659, Fax: 310-206-7007 []


DESC: The University of Cincinnati has begun a small project to digitize their Human Rights Collection.

CONTACT: Taylor Fitchett, Head Librarian, Robert S. Marx Law Library, University of Cincinnati,Cincinnati, OH 45221, Telephone: 513-556-3016


DESC: The University of Hawaii Library’s Pacific Collection is digitizing the Trust Territory Archives Photo Collection.

CONTACT: Karen Peacock, University of Hawaii, [placock@uhunix.]


DESC: Multimedia access to three archival research collections is being provided (Maine folklife center (Orono), Folger Library special collections (Orono) and Acadian archives (Fon Kent)) . The image database includes bit-mapped images and ascii text files stored on optical disk.

CONTACT: Marilyn Lutz, Project Director, University of Maine System Libraries, 5729 Raymond H.Folger Library, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, Telephone: (207) 581-1658, Fax: (207) 581-1653 []


DESC: Caprina is an online image project with art history. architecture, and American Studies images available to students, faculty, and staff via the campus network.

CONTACT: Walter Gilbert, Asst. Dir., Computer Science Center, Manager: AT&T Teaching Theater,University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2411, Telephone: (301) 405-6727 [Walter_gilbert@umail.Umd.Edu]


DESC: Cooperative project between UMass-Amherst and the Names Project to create an electronic archive of the AIDS Memorial Quilt. All sections of the quilt will be captured using a high end digitizing camera. A CD-ROM will be produced which includes images and associated data.

CONTACT: Louise Bloomberg. Curator of ViSual Collections. Art History, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, Phone: 413-5454061 [bloomberg]


DESC: Have completed a pilot interactive digitizing project involving art history material. AVC and Authorware software are being used.

CONTACT: Dr. Larry Gleeson, Art History Department, University of North Texas, Denton TX 76203


DESC: USC and Cornell are partners on a Commission on Preservation and Access project to explore the Kodak Photo-CD process to digitize special collections materials.

CONTACT: Vicki Steele, University of Southern California []


DESC: AVC project is developing multimedia materials for instruction and research in art history using IBM hardware and software. Also exploring the use of full-motion video and full-color images.

CONTACT: Fred Martinson, Art Department, Claxton Add. 223. AVC project, c/o Educ. Leadership, University of Tennessee, Knoxville,, TN 37996-3400. Phone: 615-974-6148, fax: 615-974-6136 [PA95816@utkvml.bitnet]


DESC: Commission on Preservation and Access contracted project to explore the potential of digitized images as a long-term preservation technique for both text and graphics and to experiment with the access and management of that collection.

CONTACT: Tamara Miller. Library Automation, Hodges Library, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1000


DESC: Developing image storage and retrieval applications for the Fine Arts Department using Gopher to support images and document association. Text libraries can be searched for particular images and the associated image viewed. Sound files can also be stored and associated with an image record.

CONTACT: Eric Jordan, Laboratory for Extended Media, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Victoria, P.O.Box 1700, Victoria, B.C. Canada, V8W ZY2, Telephone: (604) 721-7313, Fax: (604) 721-7748 []


DESC: The Center for Advanced Technology in the Humanities has two projects underway – one to digitize historical Civil War era material, the other to digitize the complete works of Dante Rossetti.

CONTACTS: Prof. Edward L. Ayers, History Department, Univ. of Virginia [] or Edmund Berkeley, Jr., Director, Special Collections Dept., University of Virginia Library [] or Barbie Selby. Documents Dept.. Univ. of Virginia Library []


DESC: The Clipper Project of the Peabody College Education Library is a Macintosh-based optical storage system which allows easy retrieval of active reference files,including newspaper clippings, pamphlets,reports, and statistical information by end users.

CONTACT: Peabody College Education Library, P.O. Box 325, Nashville, TN 37203-5601, Telephone:615-322-8095


DESC: Investigating digitizing their archival collection of features and linking the full motion digital output to a relational database.

CONTACT: Adina Lerner, Research Administrator, Animation Research Library, Walt Disney Pictures []


DESC: Project to convert 10,000 books from microfilm to digital imagery to explore the usefulness of digital technology for preservation, to enhance intellectual access to the content of the books and to make the image and index data available remotely.

CONTACT: Paul Conway. Preservation Department, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University, P.O. Box 208240, New Haven, CT 06520 []


DESC: In the early stages of a pilot imaging project. Are currently gathering information and developing a needs assessment survey.

CONTACT: Sherrill Cohn, 14-I-A-53I, Amgen Inc.. 1840 DeHavilland Dr.Thousand Oaks. CA 91320-1789 []


DESC: Interested in using digital imaging for archiving existing photographic film, for producing working images that can be sent via the Internet to research colleagues and for creating high-ouality images for publication and distribution purposes.

CONTACT: Christopher Maines, Conservation Scientist, Freer and Sackler Galleries. Smithsonian Institution, MRC 707, 1150 Independence Ave. SW Washington DC 20560, Telephone: 202-357-4550 x289 []


DESC: Planning to selectively make color slides and color transparencies for sections of their map collection and then digitize those, perhaps with a commercial vendor.

CONTACT: David A. Cobb, Harvard Map Collection, []


DESC: In the planning stages of a project to digitize a slide collection.

CONTACT: Carmen King, Fine Arts Librarian, Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022 []


DESC: Interested in putting their archival material into an electronic format, probably CDROM.

CONTACT: Nancy Isaacs, Director of the Library, Lesley College []


DESC: Interested in putting their 35mm slide collection in the Art and Art History Department into a digitized form.

CONTACT: Rachel Dvoretzky, Slide Curator, Art and Art History, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 []


DESC: Interested in digitally transferring 90,000 35mm microfilms of medieval manuscripts and providing access on the Internet through Labyrinth or other WWW nodes.

CONTACT: Peregrin Berres. OSB, Hill Monastic Manuscript Library, St. John’s Abbey and University, Collegeville, MN 56321-7300, Telephone: 612-363-3514 []


DESC: Preparing a grant application for a preservation imaging project.

CONTACT: Anne Beaumont, Database Administrator, State Library of Victoria, 328 Swanston Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3000 []


DESC: Interested in creating an image database accessible on the campus network of several independent campus slide collections. Currently developing a proposal and searching for funding sources for their project.

CONTACT: Carol Richards. Coordinator of Information and Access Services. E.H. Butler Library, SUNY College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, NY 14222-1095 Phone: 716-878-6336. FAX: 716-878-3134 []


DESC: Interested in creating a networked, multi-media computing and information resource incorporating digitized text, sound and graphics for music and visual arts. They are undertaking a feasibility study to identify expectations and requirements of the system.

CONTACT: Nancy Nuzzo, Associate Librarian, Music Library, Baird Hall, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4700. Telephone 716-645-2924 []


DESC: In the planning stages of a project to digitize rare law materials including manuscripts and incunables.

CONTACT: Lucia Diamond, Robbins Collection, School of Law (Boalt Hall), University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2499, Telephone: 510-642-5095 []


DESC: In the very early planning stages of creating a mini-electronic exhibition of prints and drawings in the Spencer Museum of Art. Images would be available to remote users via the network (as a WWW site) and browsable with Mosaic.

CONTACT: Steven Goddard, Assoc. Prof. of Art History, University of Kansas []


DESC: Interested in developing a visual database of historical Southeast Asian images relating to ethnography, tourism and architecture/art.

CONTACT: Randal Baier, Southeast Asia Collection, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. MI []


DESC: In Ule planning stages of digitizing images of objects in the Gallery’s collection using Photo-CD technology with images made available over the Internet.

CONTACT: Lucy Bjorklund Harper, Director of Library Services, Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY []


DESC: Investigating some possible projects, especially for photographs.

CONTACT: Gary L. Menges, Head, Special Collections & Preservation, Allen Library, FM-25, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 []


DESC: Are planning to develop an archival CD-ROM of audio and visual materials relating to musician Morris Lawrence.

CONTACT: Randal Baier, Learning Resource Center, Washtenaw Community College, Ann Arbor. MI []

1. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY–Card Catalog Conversion Project

Description: The Princeton University and VTLS Imaging Services have just finished a joint project to scan the libraries’ public union card catalog, containing 6.5 million 3×5 catalog cards, to create a database of digitized images. The database represents 1.75 million titles acquired and cataloged before 1980, predating Princeton’s library automation and online catalog. Initially, the image database will not be integrated with the libraries’ online catalog, but will work in conjunction with it.

The 6.5 million images represent the LARGEST IMAGE DATABASE created in a library. The system uses the VTLS ImageManager software for retrieval.

The project will preserve valuable information, permit network access from non-library locations, provide enhanced searching capabilities to the libraries collection, create more efficient tools for maintaining the catalog, and provide a relatively cost-effective and error-free alternative to standard retrospective conversion.

Contact: Eileen Henthorne, Firestone Library, Princeton University, NJ []

2. CALIFORNIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY–Visual Imaging/Automation Project

Description: The main objective is to set standards for full and comprehensive intellectual access via a system that is powerful, easy to use, and with access methods that meet the state-of-the-art standards for libraries, museums, etc.

This includes high quality digital images. The collection contains photographs, maps, broadsides, rare books, ephemera, etc.

Contact: Robert MacKimmie, Curatorial Director of Photography California Historical Society, San Francisco 415-567-1848 []


Description: Patrons can search the bibliographic records in NAL’s OPAC and retrieve full text, images and sound related to those records using VTLS InfoStation software. Researchers can also use hypermedia links to annotate the records with explanations or to create new links to other images or related documents. The scanned database consists of materials from three core collections: aquaculture, food and nutrition, and agricultural trade and marketing. Part of the collection comes from NAL’s CDROM production, while the remainder was scanned from NAL’s print collection. NAL has also added digital audio recordings which are linked to images by hypermedia links to provide voice explanations to selected images that are not self-explanatory.

The database will eventually contain 10,000 pages of full text, gray and color images, and audio enhancements linked to selected images.

Contact: Richard Thompson []


Imaging Project

Description: Swiss National Library has recently started a project to create images from their collection and link it to its OPAC using VTLS InfoStation software. These images will be stored on multiple Kodak Photo CD’s.

Contact: Dr. Ruth Wuest, SNL Bern Switzerland [] ** In 158: (is end of big blockuote really)

Print requested by BL.PAM on 07/30/95 at 06:51:18 from BL.PAM’s message file.


DESC: Three pilot projects underway: (1) are providing access to 50,000 digitized images from popular photographic videodiscs via Telstra (a partnership of the State Library and Telcom/OTC); (2) have an electronic publishing program underway mostly oriented to the educational market; (3) are digitizing the papers of Sir Joseph Banks and creating an integrated database of name and subject index records which will be linked to either a group of images (series) or a single image (document). This collection will be made available via CD-ROM format.

CONTACT: Margy Burn (Director, Collection Services) or Alan Ventress (Manager, Australian Research Collections & Mitchell Librarian ), State Library of New South Wales, Macquarie Street, Sydney NSW 2000,Australia, Telephone: (02) 230-1414; Fax: (02) 2324816 [ or]

Appendix II

Author’s Brief Clearinghouse of Image Databases


The Clearinghouse of Image Databases is an online directory of image databases housed on a gopher server at the University of Arizona Library. It was created in July 1994 by Stuart Glogofi, Assistant Dean for Library Information Systems at the University of Arizona, who continues to maintain it.


The Clearinghouse’s intended audience was librarians and archivists who were either planning or developing databases containing digitized images from their collections. Since its inception, however, the Clearinghouse’s scope and purpose has been expanded to gather technical and descriptive information about imaging projects as information resources, regardless of where these projects are being developed. Within this broad purpose is the expectation that, if this information is presented in a relatively non-technical fashion, it will he highly useful to people in planning and developing imaging projects. It will help avoid duplication and lessen the learning curve by identifying others who have worked with a particular storage media or original material. Because image databases are a relatively new endeavor, there are many information professional, scientists, and teaching faculty are new to this technology. The audience for Clearinghouse information is perceived to be vast and international in scope


The University of Arizona Library, like other large university libraries, has a mission to promote the dissemination of information. The Clearinghouse is one effort to address this need. In the past two years, the hardware, software, and telecommunications needed to create and distribute an image database has advanced to the degree that interest in image databases is becoming widespread. Technological developments have also raised new interest to create image databases for the preservation of rare and special collections.

At the time the Clearinghouse was created, it was hoped that it would prove to he a useful contribution. Although others have helped fine tune the data model and construct the WAIS index, the Clearinghouse is the result of the efforts of one individual. Crucial activities such as entering data, creating links, editorial functions, soliciting participation, and implementing new features continue to reside with this individual. This raises a continuing support issue: there is the risk that if this person leaves the University of Arizona Library, the Clearinghouse will not continue to be supported.

Content and Scope

The Clearinghouse is multidisciplinary and international in scope, although all entries to date are in the English language. While its primary orientation is to list projects, these listings are supplemented with information on related publications, keys contacts, the project’s purpose, and comments from the person submitting the information.

Projects are not limited to a particular media. For example, if a project is submitted to the Clearinghouse and it does not fall within an exiting media directory, a new directory is created. (See Appendix A for a list of the media currently included.)

Editorial Policies and Process

The Clearinghouse operates with an open invitation for submissions. Projects are submitted via electronic mail, preferably according to the format described in the Clearinghouse’s “How to Submit Projects.” Little editing is made to submissions. For the most part, the submission is fp’ed to a directory on the Library’s gopher server and cap files are created for the institutional name and project name listings. Submissions that neglect to enter complete information are still added to the Clearinghouse in the hope that even an abbreviated submission will be useful to someone. Like Blanche in A Streetcar Named Desire, the Clearinghouse depends upons the kindness of strangers.

The format for submissions is specified in “How to Submit Projects” (See Appendix B). In addition, World Wide Web users will find a form on the library’s web server for submitting entries to the Clearinghouse.

To maximize the voluntary participation of databases developers in listing their projects, the data model use5l in the Clearinghouse focuses on collecting only the most critical, basic information. Data fileds may contain highly teclmical information, but field headers use terminology that will clearly he understood by developers with a variety of backgrounds and levels of expertise. Clearly, asking people to complete the data element form may deter some from submitting their projects.

Physical Access

The Clearinghouse is available to anyone who has access to the Internet, regardless of the sophistication of their hardware and software. Users can access the Clearinghouse if they can execute a telnet or gopher command, or via a World Wide Web client.

At the time the Clearinghouse was conceived and implemented, gopher and telnet access was the best option. Since then, World Wide Web has exploded and access via lynx (for VT1OOftextonly access) and graphical Web browsers, such as Netscape, were added in the spring of 1995. (See Appendix C for access information.)

At the time this essay was drafted, the University’s Library Information Systems Team (LIST) was enhancing project displays via Web browsers. A PERL script was written that takes the ascii files retrieved from the gopher server and converts them to an html format when displayed in a Web browser. In addition, LIST is exploring a way to embed a hyperlink within project descriptions having a URL so users accessing the Clearinghouse via World Wide Web might connect to the actual image database listed in the Clearinghouse.

Clearly, a resource that is available in an electronic form must keep pace with technological change. Having the time and resources to continually upgrade a project like the Clearinghouse is a continuing challenge.

Intellectual Access

The Clearinghouse was constructed with the intention of presenting its information in an open, easily identifiable format. Each entry is listed alphabetically by institution name and again by institution name but this time sorted in a media–type directory.

In the spring of 1995, access to the Clearinghouse was added via the University of Arizona’s World Wide Web server. In addition, WMS keyword searching was added. This has enhanced finding information contained in the Clearinghouse’s project descriptions. With access available via World Wide Web, high-level access tools such as Netscape and Mosaic can be used. Persons with these clients can set bookmarks to facilitate navigating directly to the Clearinghouse directories.

The Clearinghouse does not use descriptors or a controlled vocabulary. No special training or academic education is necessary to makes submissions or to work proficiently with the database.

The data element resource identifiers offer the potential of building a separate database that would be easily searchable by standard database management software, such as MS Access, Paradox, or Quatro Pro. Such a database will only be useful if project descriptions provide nearly complete data element information. A fiiture issue regarding data elements pertains to the need to augment current fields to reflect changes new technologies may introduce. For instance, if watermarking becomes extremely important, it will be important to add a data element that collects this information.

Another issue related to the data elements concerns completeness. As mentioned earlier, a balance was struck between collecting enough information on a project without going overboard. The Clearinghouse focuses on showing cornmona1ities so users can easily identify the information they are seeking.


The Clearinghouse largely relies on posting messages to selected listservs and newgroups inviting subscribers to submit information on their projects to the Clearinghouse. On occasion, an image database is found that looks appropriate for listing in the Clearinghouse and its developer is contacted.

The Clearinghouse is one of many directories with multiple files on the Library’s Gopher and Web servers. The information is backed up regularly to tape according to standard procedures.

Appendix A

: Different Media Currently Supported By the Clearinghouse

Appendix B

:How To Submit Projects the Clearninghouse

Appendix C: Accessing the Clearinghouse of Image Databases

v2.0 sjg 8/13/95

WWW-based Image Databases

  • Vatican Exhibit: Rome Reborn
  • Soviet Mchives Exhibit
  • 1492 Exhibit
  • U.C. Berkeley Museum of Paleontology Public Exhibits
  • Dead Sea Scrolls
  • The “Palace” of Diocletian at Split
  • The Clementine Imagery Data at LPL University of Arizona
  • Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University
  • Appalachian State University Images
  • The Clinton Inauguration Photographic Exhibit
  • DIVA (Digital Images – Visual Arts)
  • Access Art
  • Rare Map Collection, Hargrett Library at the University of Georgia Library
  • Islamic Architecture in Isfahan
  • Other Lists of Image Databases


Imaging Projects
The Clearinghouse of Image Databases and IMAGELIB listserv archives

  • About the Clearinghouse: Author’s Brief
  • Connect to the Clearinghouse of Image Databases
  • Search the Clearinghouse of Image Databases by Keyword
  • Search the IMAGELIB Listserv Mchives by Keyword.
  • Submit An Entry to the Clearinghouse of Images Databases

Selected Worldwide Image Databases WWW-based Image Databases

Return to The UA Library Home Page Clearinghouse of Image Databases

Clearinghouse of Image Databases

  • How to Submit Projects
  • Submit an entry to the Clearinghouse of Image Databases (your Web browser must be forms compatible)
  • Institutions, A-H
  • Institutions, I-M
  • Institutions, N-T
  • Institutions, U-Z
  • Media–Cartographic Materials
  • Media–Catalogs (art, auction,…)
  • Media–Correspondence, Papers,…
  • Media–Drawings
  • Media–Films and Video
  • Media–Medical
  • Media–Microforms
  • Media-Mixed
  • Media-Objects, Prints, Artwork,…
  • Media–Photographs
  • Media–Slides
  • Media-Text
  • Media–Transparencies

Return to the Image Databases page Clearinghouse of Image Databases: Institutions, A-H

  • AT&T Information Services Network – Internal Memoranda Project
  • Appalachian State University – Rosen Sculpture Exhibition
  • Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain – Spanish Exploration of the New World
  • Australian National University – ArtServe
  • Basler Mission (Archive), Easel, Switzerland – Archive Photography
  • Birmingham (AL) Public Library – Photography Project
  • Bodleian Library, Oxford, England – John Johnson Collection
  • Boulder (CO) Public Library Foundation
  • Brigham Young University
  • British Library – Beowulf Manuscript Access Project
  • California Historical Society
  • California Polytechnic State University (San Luis Obispo, CA)
  • California State University, Long Beach – World Art Survey Course
  • Cleveland Public Library – Photography Project
  • Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library
  • Columbia University Law School – Janus Project
  • Columbia University, Commission on Preservation and Access – NYS
  • Columbus Dispatch (Newspaper), Columbus, Ohio, USA – Columbus Dispatch
  • Cornell University Library, Preservation and Conservation Dept.
  • Cornell University Mann Library – Core Project
  • Cornell University, Commission on Preservation and Access – Class
  • Duke University – Sheet Music Images
  • Elsevier Science Publishers – Tulip Project
  • Ford Motor Technical Information Center Library – Technical Reports
  • Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation & Luna Imaging, Inc.– Frank Lloyd Wright: Presentation and Conceptual Drawings
  • Harvard University Library, Judaica Division – Israeli Poster Project
  • Harvard University, Graduate School of Design – Doors Project

Return to the Clearinghouse of Image Databases page

Clearinghouse of Image Databases: Institutions, I-M

  • Library of Congress (U.S.) – American Memory Project
  • Library of Congress — LC ACCESS
  • Library of Congress — LC Web
  • Los Angeles Public Library – Shades of L.A.
  • Louisiana State University, Electronic Irnaging Laboratory
  • Luna Imaging, Inc. – Frank Lloyd Wright: Presentation and
  • Marquelle University – Electronic Mchives Project
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology – Digital Slide Collection
  • Milwaukee Public Museum – Chippewa Photos
  • Monash University (Australia) — DIVA, Digital Images for the Visual

Clearinghouse of Image Databases: Institutions, N-T

  • National Agricultural Library (U.S.) – NAL Photo Image Project
  • National Agricultural Library (U.S.) – Text Digitizing Program
  • National Archives of Canada – ArchiVISTA
  • National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. – Micro Gallery
  • National Geographic Society – Slide collections
  • National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Division – Images
  • National Railway Museum (U.K.) – Photographs
  • Naval Research & Development (U.S.), Global Positioning System Library
  • Naval Research Laboratory Library – Text Digitizing Project
  • News International Newspapers Ltd. (UK) – NIPA (Picture Archive)
  • Online Production — Entourage
  • Oregon State University Library – Ava Helen & Linus Pauling Papers
  • Penn State University Libraries – Curtis Botanical Magazine
  • Phoenix Newspaper, Inc. – Archival Photographs
  • Princeton University Library — Electronic Card Catalog
  • Research Libraries Group – Aviador Project
  • Research Libraries Group – Image Access Project
  • Rush University – Pathology Slide Project
  • SUNY, Stony Brook — New York State Historic Maps Kodak Photo CD
  • Schoenberg Institute (Los Angeles, CA) – Arnold Schoenberg Correspondence
  • Schoenberg Institute (Los Angeles, CA) – Arnold Schoenberg Paintings
  • Smithsonian Institution — Photographs
  • Sotheby’s Library (New York, NY) — Sotheby’s Auction Catalogs
  • Stanford University, — Multimedia Distributed metaDatabase
  • State Library of New South Wales (Australia) – Papers, Sir Joseph Banks
  • Syracuse University – Light Work
  • Syracuse University, Art Center Museum — Light Work Collection
  • Telstra (Australia) – Telstra Photos
  • Thomas Jefferson University (Philadelphia, PA) – Archival
  • Tufts University, Classics Department – The Perseus Project

Return to the Clearinghouse of Image Databases page

Clearinghouse of Image Databases: Institutions, U-Z

  • United States Patent and Trademark Office
  • University of Arizona Library – Mission Churches of the Sonoran Desert
  • University of California, Berkeley, Architecture Slide Library – SPIRO
  • University of California, Los Angeles, Fowler Museum of Cultural History
  • University of Cincinnati Law Library – Human Rights Collection
  • University of Delaware – Plant Science
  • University of Georgia – WPA Photographs
  • University of Hawaii Library – Pacffic Collection
  • University of Maine System – Maine Folklife Collection
  • University of Maryland, College Park – CAPRINA
  • University of Massachusetts, Amherst – AIDS Memorial Ouilt
  • University of North Texas, Denton, TX – Pilot Interactive Project
  • University of Southern California – KLIC
  • University of Tennessee, Knoxville – Audio Visual Connection
  • University of Tennessee, Knoxville – (3alston-Busoni Archives
  • University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center — Levit Institute
  • University of Victoria, Canada – Fine Arts Images
  • University of Virginia, Center for Advanced Technology in the Humanities
  • University of Virginia, Center for Advanced Technology in the Humanities
  • Vanderbilt University, Peabody College of Education Library – Clipper
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University – Scholarly
  • Walt Disney Animation Research Library – Feature Films Archives
  • Yale University Library, Preservation Dept. – Project Open Book

Appendix III

Informal Law Scanning Project List and Consortium for Optical Imaging List

From: Robin Mills <>
To: Multiple recipients of list <>
Subject: Electronic Text Projects

Liz Kelly, Kathie Price, and I were to gather information on existing electronic text projects. We’ve pooled our own information and sought more on the listservs. Below is a summarized list of what we have discovered. If you wish, I will prepare a list with more details about each project for paper distribution. I’m sure this list isn’t comprehensive, but it does give us an idea of what’s going on out there. I don’t think we’ve missed any of the really large projects. There are many projects on the horizon; what’s difficult to determine is how many are reality. Anyway, for purposes of our discussion tomorrow, here are our findings. The list is divided into four categories: international materials, finding aids projects, other law-related projects, and other general projects:

Multilaterals Project


Full-text digitizing of multilateral conventions and other multi-party international instruments from United Nations Treaty Series and other sources. Predominantly English Language at this time. Growing at the rate of 150-200 documents per year.


Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy

Brazilian Serial Documents Digitization Project


To digitize and promote the use of executive branch serial documents issued by Brazil’s

national and provincial governments between 1830 and 1990. The digitization project is working in most cases from pre-existing sets of preservation microfilm.


The Center for Research Libraries Latin American Microform Project (LAMP)

Global Legal Information Network (GLIN)


Vernacular and English language indexing and abstracting of official gazettes supplied electronically from national government printing offices; volunteer indexers include parliamentary libraries


Library of Congress

International Human Rights Decisions

SCOPE Index to paper decisions of International Court of Human Rights, national

courts; volunteer indexers


Council of Europe

International Labour Organization Materials


Compilation of legislation from ministries of labor



World Health Organization Materials


Compilation of legislation supplied by national ministries of health



Interamerican Health Law Materials


Compilation of legislation supplied by national ministries of health of Latin American countries



UN Convention on the Sale of Goods


Decisions, book reviews, abstracts of articles, etc. supplied by international volunteers


Pace Law School

National Bank Legislation


Banking legislation from all over the world


New York University

International Relations


Conversion of Chicago-Kents Library of International Relations into optical images to allow for worldwide remote access


Chicago-Kent School of Law

Karl Llewellyn Papers


Proposed project to digitize the University of Chicagos finding guide to the Karl Llewellyn papers.


New York University School of Law

Papers of Justices Brennan and Warren


Proposed project to digitize the finding aids to the collections at the Library of Congress of the papers of Justices Brennan and Warren


New York University School of Law

American Law Institute Archives


Selected segments of UCC archives, followed by other segments


University of Pennsylvania and National Conference of Commissioners on

Uniform state Laws

Slavery manuscripts


Proposed project to digitize slavery manuscripts in University of Floridas collection


University of Florida Legal Information Center

University of Michigan Journal Storage Project (JSTOR)


Andrew W. Mellon Foundation grant to develop, deploy, and evaluate a digital library capable of supporting the needs of humanities and social science disciplines. Ten major journals in economics and in history will be scanned and made available on the Internet through MOSAIC.


University of Michigan

Project Open Book


Convert 3,000 titles now on microform to digital images


Yale University

California Heritage Digital Image Access Project


Create and test a prototype digital imaging access system, available on the Internet, based on the SGML finding aid technology developed in the Berkeley Finding Aid Project


University of California at Berkeley

American Heritage Virtual Digital Archive Project


To investigate issues directly related to the integration of USMARC collection-level cataloging records and SGML finding aids created at different institutions into a single decentralized knowledge base that can be searched and which will point to digital images of primary source materials stored on distributed sources. (still seeking funding).


University of California at Berkeley

National Digital Library


Digitization of parts of the Library of Congresss Americana collection. The goal is to have 5,000,000 items digitized by the year 2000, of which LC would do 1,000,000 with the remainder to be done by other library and archival institutions. (still seeking funds)


Library of Congress

Visible Man Project


A detailed atlas of human anatomy, released to the Internet in November 1994


National Library of Medicine



Natural language retrieval of collections scanned into parallel proccessor


Columbia University

Fourth World Documentation Project


Archive and scan documents from tribal governments, inter-tribal organizations and the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations. Focus is on indigenous governmental documents, political analysis of nation and state conflicts, and developing international law as it relates to indigenous peoples.


Center for World Indigenous Studies (Non profit [501(c) (3)] organization)

South African Constitutional Repository

At the University of the Witwatersrand, Gauteng, Republic of South Africa site address:


South African constitutional documents, including opinions of the Constitutional Court and the Constitution. The site also contains information about the law school as well.


The University of the Witwatersrand Law School



Human rights documents SGML coded supplied by nonprofit partners


University of Cincinnati

Robin K. Mills
Emory University School of Law Library
Atlanta, GA 30322
Phone: (404) 727-6983 Fax: (404) 727-2202

The Consortium for Optical Imaging in Law Libraries

The Consortium for Optical Imaging in Law Libraries (COILL) was formed in 1992 by a number of academic and research law libraries to further the digitization of legal materials

The current members of COLLL are:

American University,
Columbia University School of Law,
Case Western Reserve University School of Law,
Georgetown University Law Center,
Gonzaga University Law School,
Law Library of Congress,
New York University Law School,
Notre Dame Law School,
Texas Wesleyan University School of Law,
University of Cincinnati College of Law,
University of Washington Law School,
Yale Law School


COILL is currently engaged in a number of projects:

COILL Newsletter and COILL Report
Project DIANA
State Reports Project


1. See Appendix I for an earlier survey conducted by an American Library Association Committee.

2. There are further distinctions that can be made depending on whether the scanning needs to accommodate illustrations imbedded in the text.

3. At the risk of further complicating these distinctions, often times the full-text conversion projects involve a first step which creates a digital page image to use for either keyboarding or OCR (the digital images produced in the process may or may not be retained).

4. These encoding projects also involve prior scanning, keyboarding and/or OCR steps as well.

5. From private correspondence with Anne R. Kenney, November 1995.

6. Anne R. Kenney “Conversion of Traditional Source Materials into Digital Form,” an unpublished paper sponsored by the private DISCUSSIONSelectronic mailing list of the Getty Art History Information Program, June 1995, p. 2 and telephone conversation with John Price-Wilkin of the University of Michigan on July 28, 1995.

7. The University of Arizona Clearinghouse of Image Databases represents a good start. The access by institution, cross-indexed by media, is very useful. Keyword searching is also supported. Unfortunately, the resource “dies” in the middle when you get to the actual citation–a typed form that is usually only partly filled out with the requisite information The creator of the Clearinghouse, Stuart Glogoff, plans in due course (time and budgets permitting) to add “hot links” to the home page of each institution sponsoring a project. That would lead the searcher to the latest information, and perhaps even the digitized materials themselves- To fulfill its potential, the Clearinghouse needs paid staff to verify entries, seek out new ones, and generally maintain the information Additional information on this very important resource is included in Appendix II.

8. As for documentary editing projects (with online products)–such as many of the Presidential Papers–a separate inventory might be warranted. The methodology of this study did not pick them up readily, and a survey would need to be targeted more specifically to capture information about these important resources.

9.Kenney, p. 3.

10. See also Appendix III, which includes an informal, unpublished survey of Law related digital projects conducted in the spring of 1995 by Robin Mills (Emory University Law Library), Kathie Price (NYU Law Library) and Liz Kelly (University of Pennsylvania Law Library). It also includes list of the members of the Consortium for Optical Imaging in Law Libraries.

11.A publication (RLG Digital Access Project Proceedings, edited by Patricia A. McClung, 1995) reporting on this project is available from RLG by contacting the RLIN Information Center at bl.ric@rlg.stanford or 1-800/537-7546.

12. Excerpted from online repont, by Kathleen Cohen, entitled “Lessons Learned from Project Delta,” received from the author by electronic mail on December 1, 1995.

13.”Turning an Info-Glut into a Library,” Science (vol. 266, October 7, 1994), p. 20.

14.Investor’s Business Daily, 3/28/95, p. A8

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