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The Web site addresses listed in this section were valid as of February 7, 2000.

Agre, Philip. 1995. Institutional Circuitry: Thinking About the Forms and Uses of Information. Information Technology and Libraries 14:225-30.

Bearman, David A., and Richard H. Lytle. 1985. The Power of the Principle of Provenance. Archivaria 21:14-27.

Bearman, David A., and Peter Sigmond. 1987. Explorations of Form of Material Authority Files by Dutch Archivists. American Archivist 50:249-53.

Bellardo, Lewis J., and Lynn Lady Bellardo, compositors. 1992. A Glossary for Archivists, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers. Chicago: Society of American Archivists.

Borgman, Christine L., et al.. 1996. Social Aspects of Digital Libraries. Final Report to the National Science Foundation; Computer, Information Science, and Engineering Directorate; Division of Information, Robotics, and Intelligent Systems; Information Technology and Organizations Program, 1996. Award number 95-28808. Available from

Brichford, Maynard. 1982. The Origins of Modern Archival Theory. Midwestern Archivist 7(2):86-101.

Burke, Frank G. 1981. The Future Course of Archival Theory in the United States. American Archivist 41:40-6.

Burke, Frank G. 1997. Research and the Manuscript Tradition. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Cedars Project. 1999. CURL exemplars in digital archives. Available from

Commission on Preservation and Access and Research Libraries Group. 1996. Archiving of Digital Information: Final Report and Recommendations. Available at

Conway, Paul. 1996. Preservation in the Digital World. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access. Available at

Cook, Terry. 1984. From Information to Knowledge: An Intellectual Paradigm for Archives. Archivaria 19:28-49.

Cox, Richard J. 1994. Re-Discovering the Archival Mission: The Recordkeeping Functional Requirements Project at the University of Pittsburgh, A Progress Report. Archives and Museum Informatics 8:279-300.

Dearstyne, Bruce W. 1993. The Archival Enterprise: Modern Archival Principles, Practices, and Management Techniques. Chicago, Il.: American Library Association.

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. 1999. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1: Reference Description. Available from

Duchein, Michel. 1983. Theoretical Principles and Practical Problems of Respect des Fonds in Archival Science. Archivaria 16:64-82.

Duff, Wendy, 1998. Harnessing the Power of Warrant. American Archivist 61:88-105.

Duff, Wendy, and Kent Haworth. 1993. The Reclamation of Archival Description: The Canadian Experience. In Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance, edited by Tom Nesmith. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press.

Duranti, Luciana. 1996. Archives as a Place. Archives and Manuscripts 24:242-55.

–. 1998a. Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

–. 1998b. The Future of Archival Scholarship. Paper presented at University College Dublin.

Duranti, Luciana, and Heather MacNeil. 1997. The Preservation of the Integrity of Electronic Records: an Overview of the UBC-MAS Research Project. Archivaria 42:46-67.

Eno, Brian. 1999. In Time and Bits: Managing Digital Continuity, edited by Margaret MacLean and Ben H. Davis. Los Angeles, Ca.: Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities. Available from

Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J. 1991. Automated Archival Systems. In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, edited by Allen Kent. New York: Marcel Dekker.

–. 1998. Setting the Stage: Defining Metadata. In Introduction to Metadata: Pathways to Digital Information, edited by Murtha Baca. Los Angeles: Getty Information Institute.

–. 2000a. Evaluation Design for Large-Scale, Collaborative Online Archives: Interim Report of the Online Archive of California Evaluation Project. Archives and Museum Informatics (in press).

–. 2000b. Popularizing the Finding Aid: Exploiting EAD to Enhance Online Browsing and Retrieval in Archival Information Systems by Diverse User Groups. Journal of Internet Cataloging (in press).

Gilliland-Swetland, Luke. 1991. The Provenance of a Profession: The Permanence of the Public Archives and Historical Manuscripts Traditions in American History. American Archivist 54:160-75.

Gränström, Claes. 1994. The Janus Syndrome. In The Principle of Provenance. Stockholm: Swedish National Archives.

Hofman, Hans. 1999. National Archives of the Netherlands’ Digital Repository. Paper presented at the DLM-Forum, Brussels.

InterPARES Project. 1999. International Project on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems. University of British Columbia. Available at:

Jenkinson. Hilary. 1937. A Manual of Archive Administration, second ed. London: P. Lund, Humphries and Co.

–. 1944. Reflections of an Archivist. Contemporary Review 165:355-61.

–. 1948. The English Archivist: A New Profession. Inaugural Lecture for a New Course in Archive Administration delivered at University College London, 14 October 1947. London: H.K. Lewis and Co.

Jones, Steven G., editor. 1998. Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage Publications.

Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. 1979. Information Retrieval Systems: Characteristics, Testing, and Evaluation, second ed. New York: Wiley.

Livelton, Trevor. 1996. Archival Theory, Records, and the Public. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Lyman, Peter, and Howard Besser. 1999. Defining the Problem of Our Vanishing Memory: Background, Current Status, Models for Resolution. In Time and Bits: Managing Digital Continuity, edited by Margaret MacLean and Ben H. Davis. Los Angeles, Ca.: Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities. Available from

Lynch, Clifford A. 1994. The Integrity of Digital Information: Mechanics and Definitional Issues. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45:737-44.

Michelson, Avra. 1987. Description and Reference in the Age of Automation. American Archivist 50:192-210.

Online Archive of California Project. 1999. A Prototype Union Database of Encoded Archival Finding Aids. Available from

Pitti, Daniel V. 1999. Encoded Archival Description: An Introduction and Overview. D-Lib Magazine 5(11). Available from

Project Prism. 1999. Digital Libraries Initiative Phase 2. Cornell University. Available from

Rajasekar, Arcot, Richard Marciano, and Reagan Moore. 1999. Collection-Based Persistent Archives. San Diego Supercomputer Center. Available from

Records Continuum Research Group, Monash University. 1999. Recordkeeping Metadata. Available from

Roberts, John W. 1987. Archival Theory: Much Ado About Shelving. American Archivist 50:66-74.

–. 1990. Archival Theory: Myth or Banality? American Archivist 53:110-20.

Roe, Kathleen D. 1990. The Automation Odyssey: Library and Archives System Design Considerations. In Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format, edited byRichard P. Smiraglia. New York: Haworth Press.

Rothenberg, Jeff. 1995. Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Documents. Scientific American 272:24-9.

–. 1999. Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation. Report to the Council on Library and Information Resources. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources.

Sawyer, Don, and Lou Reich.1999. Archiving Referencing Model, White Book, Issue 5. Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. Available from

Schellenberg, Theodore R. 1956. The Appraisal of Modern Public Records. In National Archives Bulletin 8. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service. (Reprinted in Daniels, Maygene F., and Timothy Walch [eds]. 1984. A Modern Archives Reader. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service.)

–. 1959. The Future of the Archival Profession. American Archivist 22:49-58.

–. 1961. Archival Principles of Arrangement. American Archivist 24:11-24. (Reprinted in Daniels, Maygene F., and Timothy Walch [eds]. 1984. A Modern Archives Reader. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service.)

Shepard, Thom. 1998. Universal Preservation Format (UPF): Conceptual Framework. RLG DigiNews 2(6). Available from

Society of American Archivists Encoded Archival Description Working Group. 1998. Encoded Archival Description Tag Library Version 1.0. Chicago, Il.: Society of American Archivists.

–. 1999. Encoded Archival Description Application Guidelines Version 1.0. Chicago, Il.: Society of American Archivists.

Stielow, Frederick J. 1991. Archival Theory Redux and Redeemed: Definition and Context Toward a General Theory. American Archivist 54:14-26.

Taylor, Hugh. 1993a. Information Ecology and the Archives of the 1980s. In Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance, edited by Tom Nesmith. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

–. 1993b. Transformation in the Archives: Technological Adjustment or Paradigm Shift? In Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance, edited by Tom Nesmith. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Thibodeau, Kenneth. 1999. Persistent Object Preservation: Advanced Computing Infrastructure for Records Preservation. Paper presented at the DLM-Forum, October 1999, Brussels.

Upward, Frank, and Sue McKemmish. 1994. Somewhere Beyond Custody. Archives and Manuscripts 22:136-49.

Van den Broek, Jan. 1997. From Brussels to Beijing. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Archives (Beijing, 2-7 September 1996), Archivum: International Review on Archives 43. Munich: K.G. Saur.

Wenger, Etienne. 1999. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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