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Association of College and Research Libraries. 2000. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Available at

Berners-Lee, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila. 2001. The Semantic Web. Scientific American. (May): 34­43.

The Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. 1998. Reinventing Undergraduate Education: A Blueprint for America’s Research Universities. State University of New York at Stony Brook. Available at

Brown, John Seely. 2000. Growing Up Digital: How the Web Changes Work, Education, and the Ways People Learn. Change 32(2): 11­20.

Bruce, Christine. 1997. The Seven Faces of Information Literacy. Adelaide: AUSLIB Press. A version of this is available at

Butler, Brett. 2001. KnowledgeBit: A Database Format for Reference, Version 2.0. Paper presented at The Virtual Reference Desk, 2nd Annual Digital Reference Conference, Seattle, Wash., October 16­17, 2000. Available at VRD2000/proceedings/butler5-01.shtml.

Cantor, Nancy. 2000. Reinvention: Why Now? Why Us? Remarks at the Second Anniversary Retrospective on the Boyer Commission Report, State University of New York at Stony Brook, April 28, 2000. Available at

Ferguson, Chris D. 2000. ‘Shaking the Conceptual Foundations,’ Too: Integrating Research and Technology Support for the Next Generation of Information Service. College and Research Libraries 61(4): 300­11.

Greenberg, Douglas. 2000. Camel Drivers and Gatecrashers: Quality Control in the Digital Research Library.

Greenstein, Daniel, and Suzanne Thorin. 2002. The Digital Library: A Biography. CLIR Issues 27 (May/June). Available at

Janes, Joseph, Chrystie Hill, and Alex Rolfe. 2001. As-an-Expert Services Analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 52(13): 1106­21.

Janes, Joseph. 2002. Digital Reference: Reference Librarians’ Experiences and Attitudes. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53(7): 549­66.

Keller, Michael A. 1997. Cybrarians-The Information Professionals of the 21st Century. Presented at New Technologies and the Librarian of Tomorrow, Brasilia, May 19, 1997. Available at:

Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities. 2001. Returning to Our Roots. Available at

Kresh, Diane. 2000. Offering High Quality Reference Service on the Web. D-lib Magazine 6(6). Available at

Kryllidou, Martha, and Mark Young. 2001. ARL Statistics 1999-2000. Washington, D.C.: Association of Research Libraries.

Kuh, G. D. 2001. Assessing What Really Matters to Student Learning: Inside the National Survey of Student Engagement. Change 33(3): 10­17, 66.

Lagoze, Carl, et al., editors. 2002. What is the Mission of the Open Archives Initiative? Open Archives Initiative: Frequently Asked Questions, Protocol Version 2.0 of 2002-06-14. Document Version 2002/06/10T11:00:00Z. Available at

Lankes, R. David. 2001. Question Interchange Profile (QuIP): Metadata for Cooperative Reference. The Virtual Reference Desk Presented at the 2nd Annual Digital Reference Conference, Seattle, Wash., October 16­17, 2000. Available at

Lessig, Lawrence. 2000. Open Code and Open Societies. Keynote address presented at Free Softwarea Model for Society? Tutzing, Germany, June 1, 2000. Available at

Lynch, Clifford. 2000. From Automation to Transformation. Educause Review 35 January/February): 60­68. Available at

Lynch, Clifford A. 2001. When Documents Deceive: Trust and Provenance as New Factors for Information Retrieval in a Tangled Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 52(1): 12­17.

National Academy of Sciences. 1999. Being Fluent with Information Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Available at

National Research Council Committee on a National Collaboratory. 1993. National Collaboratories: Applying Information Technology for Scientific Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Task Force on Archiving Digital Information. 1996. Preserving Digital Information: Final Report and Recommendations. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access and Mountain View, Calif.: Research Libraries Group. Available at

Self, Jim, and Steve Hiller. 2001. A Decade of User Surveys. Presented at the 4th Northumbria International Conference on Performance Measures in Libraries and Information Services. Pittsburgh, Pa., August 2001. Available at

Smith, David S. [undated] Lessons from Clinical Medical Librarianship for Law Libraries: A Review of the Core Literature. Available at

Weinstein, Peter, and Gene Alloway. 1997. Seed Ontologies: Growing Digital Libraries as Distributed, Intelligent Systems. Proceedings of the Second ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries. Philadelphia, Pa., July 23­26, 1997.

Web sites referenced


Dartmouth College Collaborative Facilities:

Open Archives Initiative:

Space Physics and Aeronomy Research Collaboratory:

University of Maryland Gemstone:

University of Michigan Digital Library Extension Service:

University of Michigan, University Library, Image Services:

University of North Carolina M. Johnston Center UNC:

University of Texas TILT:

University of Virginia Information Communities:

University of Washington, UWired:

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