All URLs were valid as of September 15, 2003

Adelstein, Peter Z. 1999. Permanence of Digital Information. Access to Information Preservation Issues. Proceedings of XXXIV International Conference of the Round Table on Archives (CITRA 1999), Budapest: International Council on Archives.

Anglim, Chris. 1997. Preserving the CD-ROM. Technical Services Law Librarian 22(4). Available at

BC Archival Preservation Service. 2001. Optical Disk Media. AABC Newsletter 11(3). Vancouver: Archives Association of British Columbia. Available at

Campbell, Daniel R. 2000. Digital Preservation Strategies, What’s Good. What’s Bad. What Should You Do? AALL Spectrum (December). American Association of Law Libraries.

CD-Info Company. 1997. Customizing CDs. Available at

Clatterbuck, Tim. 1999. Choose CD-R, CD-RW Media as Though your Data Life Depends on it. International Journal of Micrographics & Optical Technology 17(4).

Clifton, P. 2001. Nonprint Media Update: Longevity and Optical Media. DTIC Digest, no. 1 (January). Defense Technical Information Center. Available at

CNET Networks, Inc. 2001. Care and Feeding of CD-Rs. Available at

CNET Networks, Inc. 2001. Disc Anatomy 101. Available at

Cochrane, Katherine. 1998. Recordable CD and DVD for Archiving. Microscopy Today No. 98-10.

Conservation Online. 2003 (May 5). NARA/Long-Term Usability of Optical Media. Available at

Ditzler, Carol, Caroline Early, and Claudia Weston. 1994. Preservation Issues for Optical/Electronic Media. Chapter 7 in The Electronic Information Initiative, Phase 1 Final Report (Revision 3). Available at

DVD Club Review. No date. DVD Care and Handling. Available at

Eastman Kodak Company. 2002 (April 2). Handling Kodak CD-R Media. Available at

Eastman Kodak Company. 2002 (March 5). Labeling Kodak CD-R Media. Available at

Eastman Kodak Company. No date. Permanence and Handling of CDs. Available at

Frey, F., S. Susstrunk. 2000. Digital Photography-How Long Will It last? Paper presented at ISCAS 2000: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Geneva, Switzerland, May 28Ð31, 2000.

Gilbert, Michael W. 1998. Digital Media Life Expectancy and Care. @OIT (Fall). University of Massachusetts Office of Information Technologies. Available at

Hartke, Jerome L. 2000 (May 22). CD-R Media Survey. Available at

_____. 2001 (July 17). Measures of CD-R Longevity. Available at

_____. 2002. Why CD-Rs Fail. Medialine (October). Available at

_____. 2002. Irradiation of CD Discs Sent by U.S. Mail. Medialine (July). Available at

High-Tech Productions. No date. Postal Service Selects Titan to Eradicate Bio-Threat in U.S. Mail. High-Tech Productions to conduct Media Testing with Titan.

Hirota, Kusato, and Gentaro Ohbayashi. 1997. Reliability of the Phase Change Optical Disc. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part I 36(10): 6398Ð6402.

Imation, 2002. Handle with Care: Making Your CD-R & CD-RW Media Last.

International Organization for Standardization. 2002. International Standard ISO 18921, Imaging materials-Compact discs (CD-ROM)-Method for estimating the life expectancy based on the effects of temperature and relative humidity. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

Kushnier, Ron. No date. Care and Handling of CD-ROM Discs. Available at

Lee, Kyong-Ho, Oliver Slattery, Richang Lu, Xiao Tang, and Victor McCrary. 2002. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 107: 93Ð106. Available at

Library of Congress. National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program. Available at

Marschall, Mary E., and Ginni Voedisch. 1990. Compact Discs: Permanence and Irretrievability May Be Synonymous In Libraries As Well As In Roget’s. National Online Meeting Proceedings. Medford, N.J.: Learned Information.

Maxell Corporation of America. No date. Tech Info. Available at

Maxell Corporation of America. No date. Maxell DVD-R White Paper. Available at

Media Sciences, Inc. No date. Frequently Asked Questions. Available at

Mitsui Advanced Media, Inc. No date. Mitsui DVD-R. Available at

_____. No date. CD-R Dyes: How to Tell What’s What. Available at

_____. No date. Silver vs. Gold: Which is Best for Me? Available at

_____. 1999. Handling and Storage Guidelines. Available at

National Archives of Australia. 1999 (April). Protecting and Handling Optical Discs. Available at

National Archives and Records Administration. 2001 (April). Frequently Asked Questions About Optical Media. Available at

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory. 2003 (Jan. 16). Data Preservation Program. Available at

National Library of Australia. 2001 (December). Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI), Optical Discs. Available at

Optical Storage Technology Association. 2001. Technology: Q&A. Understanding CD-R & CD-RW. Available at

PCTechGuide. 2003 (March 27). Storage: CD ROM. Available at

_____. 2003 (March 27). Storage: CD-Recordable/CD-Rewritable. Available at

_____. 2003 (March 27). Storage: DVD. Available at

Pioneer Electronics Service, Inc. No date. CD Care and Information. Doc No. 14038. Available at

Pohlmann, Ken. 1992. The Compact Disc Handbook, 2nd ed. Middleton, Wisc.: A-R Editions.

Saffady, William. 1997. Stability, Care, and Handling of Microfilms, Magnetic Media and Optical Disks. Library Technology Reports 33(6): 709.

St. Laurent, Gilles. 1996. The Care and Handling of Recorded Sound Materials. National Library of Canada. Available at

SANYO Laser Products, Inc. 2002. DVD-Frequently Asked Questions. Available at

Sharpless, Graham. 2003. CD and DVD Disc Manufacturing. Deluxe Global Media Services, Ltd. Available at

______. 2003. An Introduction to DVD Formats. Deluxe Global Media Services, Ltd. Available at

______. 2003. Introduction to CD and CD-ROM. Deluxe Global Media Services, Ltd. Available at

Sony Electronics Inc. 2003. Care and Handling/CD-R and CD-RW. Available at

Stinson, Douglas, Fred Ameli, and Nick Zaino. 1995. Lifetime of KODAK Writable CD and Photo CD Media. Available at

Taylor, Jim. 2003 (Sept. 22). DVD Demystified: DVD Frequently Asked Questions (and Answers). Available at

TDK. No date. TDK CD-R Technology. Available at

Technical Advisory Service for Images. 2002 (March). An Introduction to Digital Preservation. TASI Advice Paper. Available at

_____. 2002 (September). Using CD-R and DVD-R for Digital Preservation. TASI Advice Paper. Available at

Titan Corporation San Diego, Organic Consumers Association, Effects of Electronic Beam Irradiation on Nonfood Substance, Initial Beam Effects Summary. Available at

Van Bogart, John W. C. 1995. Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling. Washington, DC: Commission on Preservation and Access and St. Paul, Minn.: National Media Laboratory. Available at

Verbatim Corporation. 2001. FAQ: What is the Proper Care and Handling for Optical Discs? Available at